Composition of Mangroves and Mangrove Associates in Barangay Ata Atahon, Nasipit, Agusan del Norte, Philippines


  • Cresencio C. Cabuga Jr. Senior High School Department, Del Pilar National High School, Cabadbaran City, Agusan del Norte, Philippines
  • Aldrin B Lopez Senior High School Department, University of San Jose Ricoletos, Cebu City, Philippines
  • Neprissa E Cuarteron Languages and Social Science Department, North Eastern Mindanao State University (NEMSU), Cantillan Campus, Surigao del Sur, Philippines
  • Nñeka Jean A. Pangapalan Department of Education, San Jose National High School, Surigao Del Sur, Philippines



Mangroves are essential components of the coastal biome and have an extremely productive ecosystem. It provides benefits for both the environment and humans. Valuation of the diversity and species composition plays a crucial role in the conservation and protection. This study aimed to assess the composition of mangroves and mangrove associates in Barangay Ata-Atahon, Nasipit, Agusan del Norte, Philippines. Three sampling stations were established with a 50-meter interval in every station. Transect lines of 50 meters were laid perpendicular to the shoreline. The results show that 19 species of mangroves and 5 mangrove associates were recorded. Ceriops decandra was found to be the dominant species with 303 individuals and constituting 36% of the entire mangroves population. While Camptostemon philippinensis, Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mucronata had the lowest number of individuals and made up a combination of 5%. In mangrove associates, Avicennia rumphiana made up 47% of the population and was followed by Avicennia marina (40%). This implied that the study area is less diverse based on the observed species when compared to the 46-mangrove species found in the Philippines alone. Necessarily, reforestation and conservation efforts must be attained to fill the gaps between the community and mangrove sustainability. Thus, determining the species diversity and composition measures ecological status. Mitigations and ecological management must be enacted by the locality to further conserve the mangrove ecosystem.


Biodiversity, Mangroves, Caraga Region


Download data is not yet available.


Y.S. Ho and S.A. Mukul, “Publication Performance and Trends in Mangrove Forests: A Bibliometric Analysis”. Sustainability, vol.13, no. 12532, 2021. su132212532.

B.A. Polidoro, K.E. Carpenter, L. Collins, N.C. Duke, A.M. Ellison, “The Loss of Species: Mangrove Extinction Risk and Geographic Areas of Global Concern”, vol. 5, issue 4, 2010.

J. Kamaruzaman, “Malaysian Mangrove Forests and their Significance to the Coastal Marine Environment”, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, vol. 22, issue 4, pp. 979-1005, 2013.

L. Carugati, B. Gatto, E. Rastelli, M. Lo, M. Caterina, S.D. Greco, “Impact of Mangrove Forests Degradation on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning”, Scientific Reports, vol. 8, issue 10, 2018.

B.L. Pototan, N.C. Capin, M.R.M. Tinoy, A. Novero, “Diversity of Mangrove Species in Three Municipalities of Davao del Norte, Philippines”, AACL Bioflux, vol.10, pp. 1569-1580, 2017.

B. Sen, M.T. Alp, F. Sonmez, M. Koçer, O. Canpolat, “Relationship of Algae to Water Pollution and Waste Water Treatment”, University of Firat, Faculty of Fisheries Department of Aquatic Basic Sciences Elazığ, Turkey, vol.14, pp. 341-353, 2013.

A. Sekar, K. Kandasamy, V. Gomathi, R. Anburaj, K. Saravanakumar, N. Asmathunisha, S.K. Sahu, V. Shanmugaarasu, “Carbon Sequestration Potential of Mangroves and Their Sediments in Southeast Coast of India”, Proceedings of the International Conference: Meeting on Mangrove Ecology, Functioning and Management, Galle, Sri Lanka, pp.1-192, 2012

M.D. Spalding, S. Ruffo, C. Lacambra, I. Meliane, L.Z. Hale, C.C. Shepard, M.W. Beck, “The Role of Ecosystems in Coastal Protection: Adapting to Climate Change and Coastal Hazards”, Ocean & Coastal Management, vol. 90 pp.50-57, 2014.

K. Shah, A.H. Kamal, Z. Rosli, K.R. Hakeem, M.M. Hoque, “Composition and diversity of plants in Sibuti mangrove forest, Sarawak, Malaysia”, Forest Science and Technology. vol. 12, issue 2, pp.70-76, 2016.

F.J. Brundage, F. May, A, Huth, “Species composition and forest structure explain the temperature sensitivity patterns of productivity in temperate forests”, Biogeosciences, vol.15, pp.1795-1813, 2018.

Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), “Rules and Regulations for the Issuance of Free Patents to Residential Lands”, DENR Administrative Order No. 2010-12, 2010.

J.H. Primavera, “Philippine mangroves: status, threats and sustainable development”, In M. Vannucci (Ed.), Mangrove management and conservation: present and Tokyo, Japan: United Nations University Press, pp.192–207, 2004.

International Union Conservation Network (IUCN), “The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-1”,, 2019.

R.E. Sherman, T.J. Fahey, R.W. Howarth, “Soil-plant interactions in a neotropical mangrove forest: iron, phosphorus and sulfur dynamics”, Oecologia, vol. 115, pp. 553-563, 1998.

T.O. Ferreira, “Effects of Bioturbation by Root and Crab Activity on Iron and Sulfur Biogeochemistry in Mangrove Substrate”, Geoderma, vol. 142, pp.36-46, 2007b.

L.L. Eberhardt and J.M. Thomas, “Designing Environmental Field Studies”, vol. 61, issue 1, pp. 53-73,1991.

D.J. Pennock, “Designing Field Studies in Soil Science”, Canadian Journal Soil Science, vol. 84, pp.1–10, 2004.

M.D. Hossain and A.A. Nurrudin, “Soil and Mangrove: A Review”, Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 9, issue 2, pp. 198-207, 2016.

V.J. Chapman, “Mangrove vegetation”, Journal of Cramer, New York, p. 477, 1976.

W.H. Brown, F.A. Fischer, “Philippine mangrove swamps”. Bulletin No. 17, Bureau of Forestry, Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Manila, Philippines, 1918.

J.H. Primavera, “Development and conservation of the Philippine mangroves: institutional issues”, Ecology, vol. 35, pp. 91–106. 2000.

R.E. Ricklefs and D. Schluter, “Species Diversity in Ecological Communities”, Historical and Geographical Perspectives. University of Chicago Press, 1993.

J.B. Long and C. Giri, “Mapping the Philippines” Mangrove Forests Using Landsat Imagery Sensors, vol. 11, pp. 2972-2981, 2011.

K. Kathiresan and B. Bingham, “Biology of Mangroves and Mangrove Ecosystems”, Advances in Marine Biology, vol. 40, pp. 81-251, 2001.

M.K. Tan, “Orthoptera in the Mangrove Forests of Singapore”, Nature in Singapore, vol. 26: pp. 289–300, 2013.

A.C. Ashton, D.J. Macintosh, P.J. Hogarth, “A baseline study of the Diversity and Community Ecology of Crab and Molluscan Macrofauna in the Sematan Mangrove Forest, Sarawak, Malaysia”, Journal of Tropical Ecology, vol. 19, pp.127–142, 2003.

K. Schmitt, N.C. Duke, “Mangrove management, assessment and monitoring”, Tropical Forestry Handbook, Chapter 126–1, 2015.

S. Bhatt, D.G. Shah, N. Desai, “The mangrove diversity of Purna Estuary, South Gujarat, India”, Tropical Ecology, vol. 50, issue 2, pp. 287-293, 2009.

A.M, Dencer-Brown, A.C, Alfaro, S, Milne, “Muddied waters: Perceptions and attitudes towards mangroves and their removal in New Zealand.” Sustainability, vol. 11, issue 9: 2631. DOI: 10.3390/su11092631.

J.M.D. Quevedo, Y. Uchiyama, R. Kohsaka, “Perceptions of local communities on mangrove forests, their services and management: implications for Eco-DRR and blue carbon management for Eastern Samar, Philippines”. Journal Forestry Research, vol. 25, issue. 1, pp; 1-11, 2019.

I.F. Setiyaningrum, “Community perceptions on mangrove forest sustainability in Dukuh Bendo, Jatikontal Village, Purwodadi District, Purworejo Regency, Central Java”. IOP Conf Ser: Earth Environ Sci, vol. 271, issue. 1, 2019.

E. Wahyuni, F. Zulhafandi, J. Hendris, “Detection of community knowledge level of economic, ecological benefits and causes of damage to mangrove forest ecosystems”. IOP Conf Ser: Earth Environ Sci, vol. 748, issue. 1, no. 012017, 2021.

B.P. Nyangoko, H. Berg, M.M. Mangora, M.S. Shalli, M. Gullstrom, “Community perceptions of climate change and ecosystem-based adaptation in the mangrove ecosystem of the Rufiji Delta, Tanzania”. Clim. Dev, pp.1–3, 2021.

G. Mikusinski, K Niedziałkowski, “Perceived importance of ecosystem services in the Białowieza ˙ Forest for local communities – does proximity matter?” Land Use Pol. 97, no. 104667, 2020.

B.P. Nyangoko, H. Berg, M.M. Mangora, M. Gullstrom, M.S. Shalli, “Community perceptions of mangrove ecosystem services and their determinants in the Rufiji Delta, Tanzania”. Sustain. Times, vol. 13, issue. 63. 2021.

G.M. Wagner, F.D. Akwilapo, S. Mrosso, S. Ulomi, R. Masinde, “Assessment of marine biodiversity, ecosystem health, and resource status in mangrove forests in Mnazi Bay Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park”. IUCN, UNDP, MPRU, GEF, Nairobi, Kenya. 2004.

D.M. Melana, E.E. Melana, A.M. Mapalo, “Mangroves management and development in the Philippines”. Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Philippines. 2005.

Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), “The world's mangroves 1980 – 2005”. Rome, Italy. 2007.

N.C. Duke, “Mangroves”. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. 2011. DOI: 10.1007/978-90-481-2639-2_108.

L.D. Camacho, D.T. Gevaña, L.L. Sabino, C.D. Ruzol, J.E. Garcia, A.C.D. Camacho, T.N. Oo, A.C. Maung, K.G. Saxena, L. Liang, E. Yiu, K. Takeuchi, “Sustainable mangrove rehabilitation: Lessons and insights from community-based management in the Philippines and Myanmar”. APN Sci Bull. Vol. 10, pp. 18-25. 2020.

B. Satyanarayana, P. Bhanderi, M. Debry, D. Maniatis, F. Foré, D. Badgie, K. Jammeh, T. Vanwing, C. Farcy, N. Koedam, F. Dahdouh-Guebas, “A socio-ecological assessment aiming at improved forest resource management and sustainable ecotourism development in the mangroves of Tanbi Wetland National Park, The Gambia, West Africa”. Ambio. vol. 41, pp. 513-526. 2012.

M.I. Sawairnathan, N. Halimoon, “Assessment of the local communities' knowledge on mangrove ecology”. Intl J Hum Capital Urban Manage vol. 2, pp. 125-138. 2017. DOI: 10.22034/ijhcum.2017.02.02.004.

D.T. Gevaña, J.M. Pulhin, M.A. Tapia, “Fostering climate change mitigation through a community-based approach: Carbon stock potential of community-managed mangroves in the Philippines”. 2019.

A. Dinilhuda, A.A. Akbar, F. Jumiati, H. Herawati, “Potential of mangrove ecosystem as carbon storage for global warming mitigation”. Biodiversitas, vol. 21, pp. 5353-5362. 2020.

S. Sannigrahi, Q. Zhang, F. Pilla, P.K. Joshi, B. Basu, S. Keesstra, P.S. Roy, Y. Wang, P.C. Sutton, S. Chakraborti, S.K. Paul, S. Sen, “Responses of ecosystem services to natural and anthropogenic forcings: a spatial regression-based assessment in the world’s largest mangrove ecosystem”. Science of The Total Environment, vol. 715, no. 137004. 2020.

Z. Ermgassen, P.S.E. Mukherjee, N. Worthington, T.A. Acosta, A. Rocha-Araujo, A.R. DaBeitl, C.M. Castellanos-Galindo, G.A. Cunha-Lignon, M. Dahdouh-Guebas, F. Diele, K. Parrett, C.L. Dwyer, P.G. Gair, J.R. Johnson, A.F. Kuguru, B. Savio Lobo, A. Loneragan, N.R. Longley-Wood, K. Mendonça, J.T. Meynecke, J.O. Mandal, R.N. Munga, C.N. Reguero, B.G. Ronnback, P. Thorley, J. Wolff, M. Spalding, “Fishers who rely on mangroves: modelling and mapping the global intensity of mangrove-associated fisheries”. Estuar. Coast Shelf Sci. vol. 247, no. 106975. 2020.

M. Trevino, P.J. Murillo-Sandoval, “Uneven consequences: gendered impacts of shrimp aquaculture development on mangrove dependent communities”. Ocean Coast Manag. vol. 210, no. 105688. 2021.

J.M.D. Quevedo, Y. Uchiyama, R. Kohsaka, “Perceptions of local communities on mangrove forests, their services and management: implications for Eco-DRR and blue carbon management for Eastern Samar, Philippines”. J. For. Res. vol. 25, pp.1–11. 2020.






Research Article

How to Cite

C. C. Cabuga Jr., A. B. Lopez, N. E. Cuarteron, and N. J. A. Pangapalan, “Composition of Mangroves and Mangrove Associates in Barangay Ata Atahon, Nasipit, Agusan del Norte, Philippines”, Int. Ann. Sci., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 22–30, Nov. 2022.