International Annals of Science <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="/public/site/images/aabahishti/IAS_cover_page.jpg" alt="IAS"></a> International Annals of science is an open access, peer-reviewed, online multidisciplinary journal dedicated to publishing high-quality research in all areas of the Computer, Mathematics, Physical, Chemical, Biological, and Earth Sciences. Papers published by the journal represent important advances of significance within each field by AIJR Publisher.<br>International Annals of Science is registered with CrossRef with doi:10.21467/ias and ISSN of this journal is &nbsp;2456-7132 [online].</p> AIJR Publisher en-US International Annals of Science 2456-7132 <div id="copyrightNotice"> <p>Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to International Annals of Science and its publisher "<a title="AIJR Publisher homepage" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">AIJR</a> (India)". Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print, and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media, or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.<br />Click <a title="Copyright Policy" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a> for more information on Copyright policy<br />Click <a title="Licensing Policy" href="">here</a> for more information on Licensing policy</p> </div> Butadiene Rubber in the Petrochemical Industry <p>The Butadiene is a raw material used in the petrochemical industry. The use of Butadiene has risen with petrochemical market growth. The Global market is forecasting a demand growth for butadiene applications, especially for rubber materials. The estimated synthetic rubber market is $19.1 billion in 2021 and forecasted to reach $23.2 billion in five years. The dynamic growth in butadiene applications will introduce new products used in many things from the food industry to sports and goods. Also, the rubber materials have different applications in the automotive industry, oil and gas, medical products, and plastics. Companies’ strategic planning to increase the production of synthetic rubber for the global market. The demand increased as new applications were introduced to the market. The stability of oil prices will have the rubber market steady which always leads to optimal pricing. The diver for Butadiene rubber applications is to maximize production by having different kind of materials that applied for several products. The global business development indicated the ability to increases the synthetic rubber market rubber and capacities, which will enhance the chemical process techniques, new technology design, and efficiency that will maximize production and minimize product cost. Looking into the price difference between synthetic and natural rubber, many fluctuation variables were introduced in the price of each type. For example, synthetic rubber price is high, depending on crude oil, natural gasoline and naphtha prices, since those feedstocks are fed to the cracking units, as C4 is one of the cracking products. Therefore, any change in the oil prices will influence the butadiene price, which is the feed for most rubber plants. In addition, the utilities required for those plants to operate have a major impact on overall price. On the other hand, Natural rubber is an agricultural product and dependent on soil type and weather.</p> Abdulaziz K Bubshait Copyright (c) 2021 Abdulaziz K Bubshait 2021-12-13 2021-12-13 11 1 22 26 10.21467/ias.11.1.22-26 A Consolidated Method for Selective Isolation of Actinomycetes Based on Choice of Substrate <p class="root-block-node" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 115%; margin: 0in .4in 0in .4in;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Garamond',serif;">Actinomycetes are known as filamentous, <span class="red-underline">Gram </span>positive bacteria. They form the majority of the microbial load in various niches; soils, composts, etc. The study aimed to evaluate the method of isolating slow growing actinomycetes from four different sources: garden soil, cow dung manure compost, floral waste compost, and floral waste vermicompost. In this study, an integrated method consisting of physical and chemical pretreatment of the sample and the use of selective media was used to isolate actinomycetes. Physical treatment includes air drying, sun drying, dry heating in an oven, and moist heat treatment, whereas chemical treatment includes enrichment of the sample with CaCO<sub>3 </sub>followed by plating on actinomycetes-specific media with the incorporation of antibacterial and antifungal antibiotics. The actinomycetes count on the plate was reported in CFU/gm of dry wt. Morphological and microscopic characteristics of purified isolates were noted. The results were compared, and it was found that the pretreatment method of a particular sample depends on the choice of substrate. Overall, physical treatment followed by chemical enrichment showed relatively higher counts on the plate and better results. Here we also found the dominance of fluorescent <em><span style="font-family: 'Garamond',serif;">Pseudomonas</span></em> sp. in case samples from vermicompost. The study can be of great importance in isolating novel and rare genera of actinomycetes. These methods can help speed up the isolation and screening of novel actinomycetes which will ultimately be important for the discovery of antibiotics and other industrially vital bioactive compounds.</span></p> Deepika Tiwari Shobha Shouche Praveesh Bhati Preeti Das Copyright (c) 2021 Deepika Tiwari, Shobha Shouche, Praveesh Bhati, Preeti Das 2021-12-11 2021-12-11 11 1 10 21 10.21467/ias.11.1.10-21 Critical COVID-19 Pneumonia with Acute Respiratory Failure in a Healthy 12-year-old Girl <p>The authors present a case report of an otherwise healthy, fully immunized 12-year-old girl who had a critical course of COVID-19 infection with acute respiratory failure. The epidemiologic history was positive for COVID-19, and she tested PCR positive resulting from a nasopharyngeal swab. She was presented with fever and cough to a regional pediatric department, and she was immediately intubated and transferred to a pediatric ICU in a University Hospital. CT of the thorax revealed bilateral consolidation with the tree-in-bud signs. Her condition required artificial ventilation support for 13 days. Remdesivir, pronation, high dose Ascorbic acid with Thiamine, and combined antimicrobial therapy were successfully used. The patient made a full clinical recovery. This case report is unique because of a very scarce critical course of COVID-19 infection in children. It demonstrates the successful use of a combined therapeutic approach with artificial ventilation, pronation, Remdesivir, and combined antimicrobial therapy. Clinical symptoms, laboratory results, imaging methods, and therapeutic attitude are mentioned to share our experience with the medical community.</p> Karolina Dolezalova Cabelova Tamara Tomas Hecht Pavel Heinige Copyright (c) 2021 Karolina Dolezalova, Cabelova Tamara, Tomas Hecht, Pavel Heinige 2021-09-07 2021-09-07 11 1 3 9 10.21467/ias.11.1.3-9