Phytochemical, Proximate and Elemental Composition of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley) A. Gray leaves


  • Titilayo Oyebola Omolola Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria



In recent times, medicinal plants are being greatly used ethnomedicinally for the management and treatment of diseases and health conditions. One of such medicinal plants is Tithonia diversifolia. This study aimed at determining the phytochemical, elemental and proximate content of the powdered plant part to help infer what is responsible for the reported therapeutic characteristics of the plant as well as determine the quality, purity and safety profile of the plant. Leaves of T.diversifolia were subjected to phytochemical, proximate and mineral screening using standard laboratory procedures. Qualitative phytochemical observation revealed the presence of Tannins, saponins, flavonoids and terpenoids. Crude Protein content was the highest with 27.69% followed by Crude Fibre (14.89%), Ash (13.86%), Moisture Content (10.92%) and the least value 1.14% for Fat. Magnesium (Mg) content was highest with 6712.50mg/kg which is 22, 35, 122 & 144 times higher than the content of Iron (Fe) (291.5mg/kg), Manganese (Mn) (191.0mg/kg), Zinc (Zn) (54.9mg/kg) and Copper (Cu) (15.1mg/kg). However, elements (heavy metals) Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr) and Cobalt (Co) were not detected. Results obtained in the study is indicative of a potential drug substitute which can be used to help manage and treat diseases due to the phytochemicals, nutrients, and minerals present in them. Also, the safety indices of this plant part have been established, thus, information obtained from the study can serve as a reference standard for the plant monograph.


Tithonia diversifolia, Phytochemicals, Minerals, Heavy metals, Proximate


Download data is not yet available.


. L.Kawini, M. Bora, S.N. Upadhyay, J. Hazra. “Pharmacological Profile of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray: A Comprehensive Review”. Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences”, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 183-187, 2017.

. A.A. Ajao and A.N. Moteetee. “Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray. (Asteraceae: Heliantheae), an invasive plant of significant ethnopharmacological importance: A review”, South African Journal of Botany, vol. 113, pp. 396-403, 2017.

. K.S. Chukwuka, S. Ogunyemi, and I. Fawole. “Ecological distribution of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl). A. Gray—a new exotic weed in Nigeria”. Journal of Biological Science, vol. 7, pp. 709–719, 2007.

. C. Orwa, A. Mutua, R. Kindt, R. Jamnadass, A. Simons. Agroforestry Database: A Tree Reference and Selection Guide Version 4.0. 2009

. J. Kadungu, P. Anjarwalla, L. Mwaura, D.A. Ofon, R. Jamnadass, P.C.Stevenson, P. Smith. Pesticidal Plant Leaflet. World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya; ISBN: 978-92-9059-347-348. 2018.

. A.M Tagne, F.Marino and M. Cosentino. “Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray as a medicinal plant: a comprehensive review of its ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacotoxicology and clinical relevance”, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 220, 28, Pages 94-116, June 2018.

. M.S.H.Wahyuningsih, A.W. Mahardika, B. Arief, and H. Muhammad. “Isolation and identification of potential cytotoxic compound from Kembang bulan (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A Gray) leaves”. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Pharmacy Science, vol. 7, pp. 298–301, 2015.

. V.B. Owoyele, C.O. Wuraola, A.O. Soladoy, and S.B. Olaleye. “Studies on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Tithonia diversifolia leaf extract”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 90, pp. 317–321, 2004.

. J.O. Olukunle, A.O. Sogebi, and J.A. Oyewusi, J.A. “Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of aqueous leaf extract of Tithonia diversifolia in rodents”. Journal of Natural Sciences Engineering and Technology. Vol. 13, pp. 82–90, 2014.

. T.P. Mayara, D.B. Deisiane, D.S.P. Christopher, B.L.R. Alex, D.R. Ryan, D.P. Flavia, S.F.S. Paula, P.L.T. Núbia, and S.M.D.A. Sheylla. “Antioxidant effect of plant extracts of the leaves of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray on the free radical DPPH”. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research”, vol. 8, pp. 1182–1189, 2016.

. P. Hiransai, J. Tangpong, C. Kumbuar, N. Hoonheang, O. Rodpech, P. Sangsuk, U. Kajklangdon, and W. Inkaow. “Anti-nitric oxide production, anti-proliferation and antioxidant effects of the aqueous extract from Tithonia diversifolia”. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 6, pp. 950–956, 2016.

. K.D.P. Pulido, A.J.C. Dulcey, and J.H.I. Martinez. “New caffeic acid derivative from Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray butanolic extract and its antioxidant activity”. Food Chemistry Toxicology, Volume 109, Part 2, Pages 1079-1085, November 2017.

. O.O. Agboola, O. Stephen, J.O. Olowooyo, A.A. Ajao, and O. Aregbesola. “Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oil extracted from Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae) flower”. Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts vol. 1, pp. 169–176, 2016.

. I.O. Oyewole, C.A. Ibidapo, D.O. Moronkola, A.O. Oduola, G.O. Adeoye, G.N. Anyasor, and J.A. Obansa. “Anti-malarial and repellent activities of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) leaf extracts”. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research ,vol. 2, pp. 171–175, 2008.

. O.B. Umar, R.D. Alex, E.E. Obukohwo. “Phytochemical and proximate composition of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray”. Annals. Food Science and Technology, vol.16, pp. 195–200, 2015.

. M. Zafar; M.A. Khan; M. Ahmad; G. Jan; S. Sultana; K. Ullah; S.K. Marwat; F. Ahmad; A. Jabeen; A. Nazir; A.M. Abbasi; Z. Rehman; Z. Ullah. “Elemental Analysis of Some Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Medicine by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS)”. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. vol 4, no. 19, pp. 1987-1990, 2010.

. N.D. Lethika, S.K. Santosh, A. Arun, M. Deepak. “A Comparative study on Proximate Analysis conducted on Medicinal Plants of Chhattisgarh, CG”. India Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 18-21, 2012

. G.E. Trease, W.C. Evans. Pharmacognosy.15th edition. Saunders publishers. 2002.

. AOAC. “Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Edition”. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC., USA. 2005.

. A.R. Isaac, J.D. Korber. “Atomic absorption and flame photometry Technique and uses in soil, plant and water analysis”. In L.M. Walsh (Ed) Instrumental Methods for analysis of soils, and plant tissues. Soil Science Society America Incorporation Wisconsin USA.1971

. R. Mythilypriya, P. Shanthi, P. Sachdanandam. “Oral acute and subacute toxicity studies with Kalpaamruthaa, a modified indigenous preparation, on rats”. Journal of Health Science, vol. 53, no 4, pp. 351-358, 2007.

. L.C. Taziebou, F.X. Etoa, B. Nkegoum, C.A. Pieme, D.P. Dzeufiet. “Acute and Subacute toxicity of Aspilia africana leaves”. African. Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. Vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 127 – 134, 2007.

. J.O.C. Ezeonwumelu, R.G. Omolo, A.M. Ajayi, E. Agwu, J.K. Tanayen, C.P. Adiukwu, A.A. Oyewale, B. Adzu, A.G. Okoruwa, S.O. Ogbonnia. “Studies of Phytochemical Screening, Acute Toxicity and Anti-Diarrhoeal Effect of Aqueous Extract of Kenyan Tithonia diversifolia Leaves in Rats”. British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. vol 3, no. 3, pp. 127-134, 2012.

. U.B. Olayinka, R.D. Alax, E.C. Obukowo. “Phytochemical and Proximate Composition of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A.Gray”. Annals. Food Science and Technology. vol.16, no. 1, pp. 195-200, 2015.

. A.O. Fasuyi, F.A.S. Dairo, F.J. Ibitayo, F.J. “Ensiling wild sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) leaves with sugar cane molasses”. Livestock Research for Rural Development. vol. 22, no. 3, 2010.

. British Pharmacopoeia. Can Med Assoc J. vol. 126, no.5, pp.514-515, 1980

. U.A.Essiet, E.M. Akpan.. “Proximate Composition and Phytochemical Constituents of Aspilia Africana (Pers) C.D Adams and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A.Gray Stems (Asteraceae). 2013.

. Kunle, O.F. 2000. “Phytochemical and microbiological studies of the leaf of Lippia mutiflora Mold. (Verbenaceae)”. Phytomedicine, vol. 10, pp. 59-61

. U.A. Essiet, N. Uriah. “Comparative Phytochemical and Physicochemical Properties of Aspilia Africana and Tithonia diversifolia leaves”. International Journal of Modern Biology and Medicine, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 113-122, 2013.

. R. Guisseppe and T.M. Baratta. “Antioxidant activity of selected essential oil components in two lipid model systems”. African Journal of Biotechnology. Vol. 69, no. 2, pp.167-174, 2000.

. D.J. Voet, J.G. Voet, C.W. Pratt. “The Principles of Biochemistry”. 3rd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, 111 River Street, Hoboken, pp. 74-219, 2008.

. C.U. Okeke, C.N. Adaku. “Phytochemical and Proximate Analysis of Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. (Euphorbiaceae)”. Nigerian Journal of Botany. Vol. 22, no.1, pp. 215-222, 2009.

. UICC/WHO 2005. Global Action against Cancer NOW. Geneva: UICC and WHO Publications Department.

. D. Dutta, U.R. Chaudhuri, and R. Chakraborty. “Structure, health benefits, antioxidant property and processing and storage of carotenoids”. African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 4, no. 13, pp. 1510 -1520, 2005.

. J. Nishiura, A. Campus, M. Boim, N. Schor. “Effect of Phyllanthus niruri on urinary calcium levels in calcium stone forming patients”. Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation of Urolothies and Related Areas. Vol. 32, no. 15, pp. 362-366, 2005.

. A.C. de Oliverira, A.C. Perez, G. Merino, J.G. Prieto, A.I. Alvarez. “Protective effects of Panax ginseng on muscle injury and inflammation after eccentric exercise”. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Vol.130c, pp. 369-377, 2001.

. E.I. Obiajunwa, A.C. Adebajo, O.R. Omobuwajo. “Essential and Trace Element contents of some Nigerian Medicinal Plants”. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry. Vol 252, no. 3, pp. 473-476, 2012.

. J.P. Bonde, P. Apostoli. “Any need to revisit the male reproductive toxicity of Lead?” Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol 62, no 1, pp 1-2, 2004.

. J.D. Meeker, M.G. Rossano, B. Protas, M.P. Diamond, E. Pusheck, D. Daly, N. Paneth, J.J. Wirth. “Cadmium, Lead, and other metals in relation to semen quality: human evidence for molybdenum as a male reproductive toxicant”. Environmental Health Perspective, vol. 116, no. 11, pp. 1473-1479, 2008

. S. Telisman, B. Colak, A. Pizent, J. Jurasovic, P. Cvitkovic. “Reproductive Toxicity of low-level lead exposure in men”. Environmental Research. vol.105, no. 2, pp. 255-266






Research Article

How to Cite

T. O. Omolola, “Phytochemical, Proximate and Elemental Composition of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley) A. Gray leaves”, Int. Ann. Sci., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 54–61, Aug. 2019.