Relationship between Social Media Addiction Levels and Academic Procrastination among Undergraduate Students in Malaysia: Grit as the Mediator

Authors

  • Lena Tzyy Xian Ch'ng Department of Psychology, HELP University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7481-1517
  • Pei Ying Soo Hoo School of Psychology, DISTED College, Penang, Malaysia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21467/ajss.11.1.13-27

Abstract

The current study examines grit as a mediator in the relationship between social media addiction and academic procrastination. Social media platforms were used to recruit 88 young adult undergraduates aged 18-26. This study was a non-experimental, correlational mediation design. Participants were asked to complete the Social Media Addiction Scale – Student Form, Academic Procrastination Scale – Short Form, and Short Grit Scale questionnaires. It was hypothesized that grit would be a statistical mediator for the effects of social media addiction on academic procrastination. The hypothesis was supported as results showed a full mediation. The current study suggests that social media addiction predicts lower level of grit and thus higher tendency of academic procrastination. It is advised that institutions encourage undergraduates to cultivate grit in order to break the vicious cycle of social media addiction and academic procrastination.

Keywords:

Social Media Addiction, Grit, Academic Procrastination

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Agarwal, P. (2019, February 17). Here Is Why Grit Is So Important For Entrepreneurs. Forbes.

Alblwi, A., Stefanidis, A., Phalp, K., & Ali, R. (2019). Procrastination on social networks: types and triggers. 2019 6th International Conference on Behavioral, Economic and Socio-Cultural Computing (BESC).

Alzahrani, S., & Bach, C. (2014). Impact of social media on personality development. International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research, 3(2), 111-116.

Andangsari, E. W., Djunaidi, A., Fitriana, E., & Harding, D. (2018). Loneliness and problematic internet use (PIU) as causes of academic procrastination. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 6(2), 113. https://doi.org/10.11114/ijsss.v6i2.2834

Armstrong, A., Van der Lingen, E., Lourens, R., & Chen, J. Y. (2018). Towards a new model of grit within a cognitive-affective framework of self-regulation. South African Journal of Business Management, 49(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajbm.v49i1.13

Attia, N. M., & Abdelwahid, A. E. (2020). Grit, self-regulation and self-efficacy as predictors of academic procrastination among nursing students. International Journal of Nursing Education, 12(1), 130-135. https://doi.org/10.5958/0974-9357.2020.00029.X

Balakrishnan, J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). Social media addiction: What is the role of content in YouTube? Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6(3), 364-377. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.6.2017.058

Bányai, F., Zsila, Á., Király, O., Maraz, A., Elekes, Z., Griffiths, M. D., Andreassen, C. S., & Demetrovics, Z. (2017). Problematic social media use: Results from a large-scale nationally representative adolescent sample. PLOS ONE, 12(1), 10-14. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169839

Bawden, D., & Robinson, L. (2009). The dark side of information: Overload, anxiety and other paradoxes and pathologies. Journal of Information Science, 35(2), 180-191. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165551508095781

Bleidorn, W., Hill, P. L., Back, M. D., Denissen, J. J., Hennecke, M., Hopwood, C. J., Jokela, M., Kandler, C., Lucas, R. E., Luhmann, M., Orth, U., Wagner, J., Wrzus, C., Zimmermann, J., & Roberts, B. (2019). Connect failed: User 942227_alan already has more than 'max_user_connections' active connections. American Psychologist, 74(9), 1056-1067. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000503

Borghans, L., Duckworth, A. L., Heckman, J. J., & Ter Weel, B. (2008). The economics and psychology of personality traits. Journal of Human Resources, 43, 972-1059. https://doi.org/10.26481/umaror.2008001

Burhan, R., & Moradzadeh, J. (2020). Neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) and its role in the development of social media addiction. Journal of Neurology & Neurophysiology, 11(7), 1-2.

Cao, X., Gong, M., Yu, L., & Dai, B. (2020). Exploring the mechanism of social media addiction: An empirical study from WeChat users. Internet Research, 30(4), 1305-1328. https://doi.org/10.1108/intr-08-2019-0347

Carstensen, L. L., Isaacowitz, D. M., & Charles, S. T. (1999). Taking time seriously: A theory of socioemotional selectivity. American Psychologist, 54(3), 165-181. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.54.3.165

Casale, S., & Fioravanti, G. (2015). Satisfying needs through social networking sites: A pathway towards problematic internet use for socially anxious people? Addictive Behaviors Reports, 1, 34-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2015.03.008

Chaker, N. N., Zablah, A. R., & Noble, C. H. (2018). More than one way to persist: Unpacking the nature of salesperson persistence to understand its effects on performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 71, 171-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2018.01.002

Chen, B. (2019). Academic procrastination and bedtime among Chinese undergraduates: The indirect and moderating effects of sensation seeking and goal disengagement. Current Psychology, 38(1), 187-193. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-017-9605-9

Credé, M., Tynan, M. C., & Harms, P. D. (2017). Much ADO about grit: A meta-analytic synthesis of the grit literature. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 113(3), 492-511. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000102

Duckworth, A. L. (2013). Grit: The power of passion and perseverance [Video]. TED: Ideas worth spreading.

Duckworth, A. L., & Quinn, P. D. (2009). Development and validation of the short grit scale (Grit–S). Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(2), 166-174. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223890802634290

Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(6), 1087-1101. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.92.6.1087

Duckworth, A., & Gross, J. J. (2014). Self-control and grit: Related but separable determinants of success. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(5), 319-325. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721414541462

Duru, E., & Balkis, M. (2017). Procrastination, self-esteem, academic performance, and well-being: A moderated mediation model. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 6(2), 97. https://doi.org/10.17583/ijep.2017.2584

Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. SAGE.

Goroshit, M., & Hen, M. (2019). Academic procrastination and academic performance: Do learning disabilities matter? Current Psychology, 40(5), 2490-2498. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-019-00183-3

Gros, L., Debue, N., Lete, J., & Van de Leemput, C. (2020). Video game addiction and emotional states: Possible confusion between pleasure and happiness? Frontiers in Psychology, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02894

Gustavson, D. E., Miyake, A., Hewitt, J. K., & Friedman, N. P. (2014). Genetic relations among procrastination, impulsivity, and goal-management ability. Psychological Science, 25(6), 1178-1188. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797614526260

Horstmanshof, L., & Zimitat, C. (2007). Future time orientation predicts academic engagement among first-year university students. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(3), 703-718. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709906x160778

IBM Corp. (2019). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 26.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. [Computer software].

Ivcevic, Z., & Brackett, M. (2014). Predicting school success: Comparing conscientiousness, grit, and emotion regulation ability. Journal of Research in Personality, 52, 29-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2014.06.005

Jin, B., & Kim, J. (2017). Grit, basic needs satisfaction, and subjective well-being. Journal of Individual Differences, 38(1), 29-35. https://doi.org/10.1027/1614-0001/a000219

Jin, H., Wang, W., & Lan, X. (2019). Peer attachment and academic procrastination in Chinese college students: A moderated mediation model of future time perspective and grit. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02645

Jones, I. S., & Blankenship, D. (2021). Year two: Effect of procrastination on academic performance of undergraduate online students. Research in Higher Education Journal, 39.

Kemp, S. (2022, February 15). Digital 2022: Malaysia. DataReportal – Global Digital Insights.

Kemp, S. (2022, January 26). Digital 2022: Another year of bumper growth. We Are Social UK.

Kircaburun, K., Alhabash, S., Tosuntaş, Ş. B., & Griffiths, M. D. (2018). Uses and gratifications of problematic social media use among University students: A simultaneous examination of the Big Five of personality traits, social media platforms, and social media use motives. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 18(3), 525-547. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-018-9940-6

Köse, Ö. B., & Doğan, A. (2019). The relationship between social media addiction and self-esteem among Turkish University students. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 6(1), 175-190. https://doi.org/10.15805/addicta.2019.6.1.0036

Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2011). Online social networking and addiction—A review of the psychological literature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8(9), 3528-3552. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph8093528

Kuss, D., Griffiths, M., Karila, L., & Billieux, J. (2014). Internet addiction: A systematic review of epidemiological research for the last decade. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 20(25), 4026-4052. https://doi.org/10.2174/13816128113199990617

Lam, K. K., & Zhou, M. (2019). Examining the relationship between grit and academic achievement within K‐12 and higher education: A systematic review. Psychology in the Schools, 56(10), 1654-1686. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.22302

Lang, F. R., & Carstensen, L. L. (2002). Time counts: Future time perspective, goals, and social relationships. Psychology and Aging, 17(1), 125-139. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.17.1.125

Lippi, G., Henry, B. M., Bovo, C., & Sanchis-Gomar, F. (2020). Health risks and potential remedies during prolonged lockdowns for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Diagnosis, 7(2), 85-90. https://doi.org/10.1515/dx-2020-0041

Marino, C., Gini, G., Vieno, A., & Spada, M. M. (2018). The associations between problematic Facebook use, psychological distress and well-being among adolescents and young adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 226, 274-281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.10.007

Masur, P. K., Reinecke, L., Ziegele, M., & Quiring, O. (2014). The interplay of intrinsic need satisfaction and Facebook specific motives in explaining addictive behavior on Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior, 39, 376-386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.05.047

McGue, M., Bacon, S., & Lykken, D. T. (1993). Personality stability and change in early adulthood: A behavioral genetic analysis. Developmental Psychology, 29(1), 96-109. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.29.1.96

Ni, X., Qian, Y., & Wang, Y. (2017). Factors affecting pathological internet use among Chinese University students. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 45(7), 1057-1068. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.6039

Nwosu, K. C., Ikwuka, O. I., Ugorji, O. M., & Unachukwu, G. C. (2020). Does the association of social media use with problematic internet behaviours predict undergraduate students academic procrastination? Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology / La revue canadienne de l’apprentissage et de la technologie, 46(1). https://doi.org/10.21432/cjlt27890

Özer, B. U., & Saçkes, M. (2011). International Conference on Education and educational psychology (ICEEPSY 2010) effects of academic procrastination on college students’ life satisfaction. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 12, 512-519. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.02.063

Park, D., Yu, A., Baelen, R. N., Tsukayama, E., & Duckworth, A. L. (2018). Fostering grit: Perceived school goal-structure predicts growth in grit and grades. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 55, 120-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2018.09.007

Pereira, L. D., & Ramos, F. P. (2021). Academic procrastination in university students: A systematic review of the literature. Psicologia Escolar e Educacional, 25. https://doi.org/10.1590/2175-35392021223504

Perez, M. (2015). Obtaining academic success: Nurturing grit in students. Journal of Interpersonal Relations, Intergroup Relations and Identity, 8, 53-63.

Polizzi, C., Lynn, S. J., & Perry, A. (2020). Stress and coping in the time of COVID-19: Pathways to resilience and recovery. Clinical Neuropsychiatr, 17(2), 59-62. https://doi.org/10.36131/CN20200204

Przepiorka, A., & Blachnio, A. (2016). Time perspective in Internet and Facebook addiction. Computers in Human Behavior, 60, 13-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.02.045

Rebetez, M. M., Rochat, L., & Van der Linden, M. (2015). Cognitive, emotional, and motivational factors related to procrastination: A cluster analytic approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 76, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.11.044

Reinecke, L., Meier, A., Beutel, M. E., Schemer, C., Stark, B., Wölfling, K., & Müller, K. W. (2018). The relationship between trait procrastination, internet use, and psychological functioning: Results from a community sample of German adolescents. Frontiers in Psychology, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00913

Shulevitz, J. (2016, May 4). ‘Grit,’ by Angela Duckworth (Published 2016). The New York Times - Breaking News, US News, World News and Videos. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/08/books/review/grit-by-angela-duckworth.html

Siah, P. C., Brian Siew, Y., & Sai, Z. Y. (2020). Social media addiction and academic adjustment: The mediating or moderating effect of grit personality. International Journal of Psychology and Educational Studies, 7(3), 143-151. https://doi.org/10.17220/ijpes.2020.03.013

Siah, P. C., Ng, A. H., Dharmaraj, E., Carmen, F., Tan, S. M., & Wider, W. (2019). Grit personality as a mediator or moderator for the effects of internet addiction on procrastination. Journal of Institutional Research South East Asia, 17(2), 18-32.

Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 65-94. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.65

Steel, P., & Klingsieck, K. B. (2016). Academic procrastination: Psychological antecedents revisited. Australian Psychologist, 51(1), 36-46. https://doi.org/10.1111/ap.12173

Sun, Y., & Zhang, Y. (2021). A review of theories and models applied in studies of social media addiction and implications for future research. Addictive Behaviors, 114, 106699. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106699

Tarafdar, M., Maier, C., Laumer, S., & Weitzel, T. (2020). Explaining the link between technostress and technology addiction for social networking sites: A study of distraction as a coping behavior. Information Systems Journal, 30(1), 96–124. https://doi.org/10.1111/isj.12253

Thatcher, A., Wretschko, G., & Fridjhon, P. (2008). Online flow experiences, problematic internet use and internet procrastination. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(5), 2236-2254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2007.10.008

Ting, C. H., & Essau, C. (2021). Addictive behaviours among university students in Malaysia during COVID-19 pandemic. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 14, 100375. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2021.100375

Üztemur, S. (2020). The mediating role of academic procrastination behaviours in the relationship between pre-service social studies teachers' social media addiction and academic success. International Journal of Education Technology and Scientific Researches, 5(11), 63-101. https://doi.org/10.35826/ijetsar.112

Vargas, M. A. (2017). Academic procrastination: The case of Mexican researchers in psychology. American Journal of Education and Learning, 2(2), 103-120. https://doi.org/10.20448/804.2.2.103.120

Vazsonyi, A. T., Ksinan, A. J., Jiskrova, G. K., Mikuška, J., Javakhishvili, M., & Cui, G. (2019). To grit or not to grit, that is the question! Journal of Research in Personality, 78, 215-226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2018.12.006

Wang, V. (2016). Handbook of research on learning outcomes and opportunities in the digital age. IGI Global.

Wolters, C. A., & Hussain, M. (2015). Investigating grit and its relations with college students’ self-regulated learning and academic achievement. Metacognition and Learning, 10(3), 293-311. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-014-9128-9

Wyszyńska, P., Ponikiewska, K., Karaś, D., Najderska, M., & Rogoza, R. (2017). Psychometric properties of the Polish version of the short grit scale. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 48(2), 229-236. https://doi.org/10.1515/ppb-2017-0026

Xanidis, N., & Brignell, C. M. (2016). The association between the use of social network sites, sleep quality and cognitive function during the day. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 121-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.09.004

Zacks, S., & Hen, M. (2018). Academic interventions for academic procrastination: A review of the literature. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 117-130. https://doi.org/10.1080/10852352.2016.1198154

Zhang, Y., Dong, S., Fang, W., Chai, X., Mei, J., & Fan, X. (2018). Self-efficacy for self-regulation and fear of failure as mediators between self-esteem and academic procrastination among undergraduates in health professions. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 23(4), 817-830. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-018-9832-3

Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6), 1271–1288. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1271

Downloads

Published

2022-09-28

How to Cite

Ch’ng , L. T. X., & Soo Hoo, P. Y. (2022). Relationship between Social Media Addiction Levels and Academic Procrastination among Undergraduate Students in Malaysia: Grit as the Mediator. Advanced Journal of Social Science, 11(1), 13–27. https://doi.org/10.21467/ajss.11.1.13-27