The Effects of Co-Teaching Zones of Regulation on Elementary Students’ Social, Emotional, and Academic Risk Behaviors




Student misbehavior is a significant concern in the current classroom. Teachers nationwide have implemented several approaches to reduce student misbehavior, including School-wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and co-teaching. However, since misbehaver still disrupts learning, research is still needed to find a classroom intervention that will reduce misbehavior in a classroom to prevent students from under achieving, disruption of peers’ learning and teacher burnout. Zones of Regulation focuses on self-regulation, while addressing sensory processing, executive functioning, and emotional regulation. This experimental study tested the effects of co-taught Zones of Regulation on students’ Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener (SAEBRS). Fifty-six early elementary students (48% female) were assigned randomly to either the experimental group, which received co-taught direct instruction with Zones of Regulation or the control group, which received standard instruction with a morning meeting. It was predicted that the experimental group would score higher on the SAEBRS than the control group. Although results showed no statistical difference on the SAEBRS scores between the two groups, more students in the experimental group moved from “at risk†to “not at riskâ€. This study suggests additional research needs to be conducted to determine if co-taught Zones of Regulation instruction is an effective intervention for reducing misbehavior.


Zones of Regulation, SAEBRS, school-wide intervention, risk behavior


Download data is not yet available.


Algozzine, K., Christian, C., Marr, M. B., McClanahan, T., & White, R. (2008). Demography of problem behavior in elementary schools. Exceptionality, 16, 93-104.

Alter, P., Walker, J., & Landers, E. (2013). Teachers’ perceptions of students’ challenging behavior and the impact of teacher demographics. Education and Treatment of Children, 36(4), 51-69.

Arens, A.K., Morin, A. J. S., & Waterman, R. (2015). Relations between classroom disciplinary problems and student motivation: Achievement as a potential mediator? Learning and Instruction, 39, 184-193.

Barron, T. L., Pinter, H. H., & Winter, K. K. (2019). Supporting student and pre service teacher successes through co-teaching. Theory and Practice in Rural Education, 9(2), 65-78.

Boyd, M. P., & Smyntek-Gworek, S. (2012). Morning meeting in a third grade classroom:Literacy and learning. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 47(2), 4-12. Retrieved March 18, 2019, from

Brackett, M. A., Reyes, M. R., Rivers, S. E., Elbertson, N. A., & Salovey, P. (2011). Classroom emotional climate, teacher affiliation and student conduct. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 46(1), 27-36.

Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(3), 133-148.

Brandt, R. C., Chitiyo, M., & May, M. E. (2014). Measures used in assessing outcomes of school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 14(4), 229-238.

Bru, E. (2009). Academic outcomes in school classes with markedly disruptive pupils. School Psychology of Education, 12, 461-479.

Chitiyo, J. (2017). Challenges to the use of co-teaching by teachers. International Journal of Whole Schooling, 13(3), 55-66.

Cochran, J. L., Gibbons, M. M., Spurgeon, S., & Cochran, N. H. (2014). Challenges in educating students with highly disruptive behaviors in a large, high poverty, elementary school. The Journal of At Risk Issues, 18(2), 1-10.

Counts, J., Randall, K. N., Ryan, J. B., & Katsiyannis, A. (2018). School resource officers in public schools: A national review. Education and Treatment of Children, 41(4), 405-530.

Dalgic, G., & Bayhan, G. (2014). A meta-analysis: Student misbehaviors that affect classroom management. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 9(2), 101-116.

Department for Education (2012) Pupil Behaviour In Schools In England. (Research Report DFE-RR218). England: Education Standards Analysis and Research Division.

Ducharme, J. M. & Shecter, C. (2011). Bridging the gap between clinical and classroom intervention: Keystone approaches for students with challenging behaviors. School Psychology Review, 40(2), 257-274.

Duncan, R. J., Schmitt, S. A., Burke, M., & McClelland, M. M. (2017). Combining a kindergarten readiness summer program with a self-regulation intervention improves school readiness. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 42, 291-300.

Fabelo, T., Thompson, M. D., Plotkin, M. P., Carmichael, D., Marchbanks, M. P., & Booth, E. A. (2011). Breaking Schools’ Rules: A Statewide Study of How School Discipline Relates to Students’ Success and Juvenile Justice Involvement. New York, NY: Council of State Governments Justice Center.

Fallon, L. M., McCarthy, S. R., & Sanetti, L. M. H. (2014). School-wide positive behavior supports (SWPBS) in the classroom: Assessing perceived challenges to consistent implementation in Connecticut schools. Education and Treatment of Children, 37(1), 1-24.

Finn, J. D., Fish, R. M., & Scott, L. A. (2008). Educational sequelae of high school misbehavior. The Journal of Educational Research, 101(5), 259-274.

Friend, M. (2008). Co-Teaching: A Simple Solution That Isn’t Simple After All. Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 2(2), 9-19.

Gardner, C. (2012). Morning meeting an science-A winning combination. Science and Children, 50(1), 60-64.

Hang, Q. & Rabren, K. (2009). The examination of co-teaching: Perspectives and efficacy indicators. Remedial and Special Education 30(5), 259-268.

Harrison, J. R., Vannest, K., Davis, J., & Reynolds, C. (2012). Common problem behaviors in children and adolescents in general education classrooms in the United States. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 20(1), 55-64.

Hayling, C. C., Cook, C., Gresham, F. M., State, T., & Kern, L. (2008). An analysis of the status and stability of the behaviors of students with emotional and behavioral difficulties. Journal of Behavior Education, 17, 24-42.

Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school wide positive behavior supports. Focus on Exceptional Children, 42(8), 1-12.

House of Commons Education Committee. (2011). Behaviour and Discipline in Schools: First Report of Session 2010-11. London: The Stationary Office.

Jackson, K. M., Willis, K., Giles, L., Lastrapes, R. E., & Mooney, P. (2017). How to meaningfully incorporate co-teaching into programs for middle school students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Beyond Behavior 26(1), 11-18.

Kilgus, S. P. (2014). Social Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener (SAEBRS) Scoring Guide.

Kilgus, S. P., Eklund, K., von der Embse, N. P., Taylor, C. N., & Sims, W. A. (2016). Psychometric defensibility of social, academic and emotional behavior risk screener (SAEBRS) teacher rating scale and multiple gating procedure within elementary and middle school samples. Journal of School Psychology, 58, 21-39.

King-Sears, M. E., Brawand, A. E., Jenkins, M. C., & Preston-Smith, S. (2014). Co-teaching perspectives from secondary science co-teachers and their students with disabilities. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 25, 651-680.

Kuypers, L. M. (2011). The Zones of Regulation: A Curriculum Designed to Foster Self Regulation and Emotional Control. Santa Clara, CA: Think Social Publishing, Inc.

Liew, J. (2011). Effortful control, executive functions, and education: Bringing self-regulatory and social-emotional competencies to the table. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 105-111.

Mallett, C. A. (2016). The School to Prison Pipeline: A Comprehensive Assessment. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, LLC.

Martinez, A., McMahon, S. D., Coker, C., & Keys, C. B. (2016). Teacher behavioral practices:Relations to student risk behaviors, learning barriers, and school climate. Psychology in the Schools, 53(8), 817-830.

Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., Caspi, A. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. PNAS 108(7), 2693-2698.

Murawski, W. W. & Hughes, C. E. (2009). Response to intervention, collaboration, and co-teaching: A logical combination for successful systematic change. Preventing School Failure, 53(4), 267-277.

Musu-Gillette, L., Zhang, A., Wang, K., Zhang, J., Kemp, J., Diliberti, M., and Oudekerk, B.A. (2018). Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2017 (NCES 2018-036/NCJ 251413). National Center for Education Statistics. Wahsington D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.

Ning, H. K. & Downing, K. (2015). A latent profile analysis of university students’self regulated learning strategies. Studies in Higher Education, 40(7), 1328-1346.

Nocera, E. J., Whitbread, K. M., & Nocera, G. P. (2014). Impact of school-wide positive behavior supports on student behavior in the middle grades. Research in Middle Level Education, 37(8), 1-14.

Ogulmus, K. & Vuran, S. (2016). Schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and support practices: Review of studies in the journal of positive behavior interventions. Education Sciences: Theory and Practice, 16(5), 1693-1710.

Perez, L. M. (2011). Teaching emotional self-awareness through inquiry-based education. Early Childhood Research and Practice. 13(2), 1-8.

Ratcliff, N. J., Jones, C. R., Costner, R. H., Savage-Davis, E., & Hunt, G. H. (2010). The elephant in the classroom: The impact of misbehavior on classroom climate. Education, 131(2), 306-314.

Raver, C. C., Jones, S. M., Li-Grining, C., Zhai, F., Bub, K., & Pressler, E. (2011). CSRP’s Impact on low-income preschoolers’ preacademic skills: Self-regulation as a mediating mechanism. Child Development, 82(1), 362-278.

Robers, S., Kemp, J., Rathbun, A., Morgan, R. E., & Snyder, T. D. (2014) Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2013. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.

Romi, S. Lewis, R., & Salkovsky, M. (2015). Exclusion as a way of promoting student responsibility: Does the kind of misbehavior matter? The Journal of Educational Research, 108, 305-317.

Soave, R. & Koteskey, T. (2017, March). Why are they putting kids in cuffs? Reason Magazine, 48(10), 46-53. Retrieved from:

Spaulding, S. A., Irvin, L. K., Horner, R. H., May, S. L., Emeldi, M., Tobin, T. J., & Sugai, G. (2010). Schoolwide social-behavioral climate, student problem behavior, and related administrative decisions. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(2), 69-85.

Strogilos, V., & Avramidis, E. (2016). Teaching experiences of students with special educational needs in co-taught and non-co-taught classes. Journal of Research in Special Education Needs, 16(1), 24-33.

Sweigart, C. A. & Landrum, T. J. (2015). The impact of number of adults on instruction: Implications for co-teaching. Preventing School Failure, 59(1), 22-29.

Tyre, A. D. & Feuerborn, L. L. (2017). The minority report: The concerns of staff opposed to schoolwide positive behavior interventions and supports in their schools. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 27(2), 145-172. 10.1080/10474412.2016.1235977

Woltering, S., & Shi, Q. (2016). On the neuroscience of self-regulation in children with disruptive behavior problems: implications for education. Review of Education Research, 86(4), 1085-1110.

Wyman, P. A., Cross, W., Brown, C. H., Yu, Q., Tu, X., & Eberly, S. (2010). Intervention to strengthen emotional self-regulation in children with emerging metnal health problems: Proximal impact on school behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38(5), 707-720. doi: 10.1007/s10802-010-9398-x

Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational Psychologist, 25(1), 3-17.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory into Practice, 41(2), 64-70.

Zimmerman, B. J. & Martinez-Pons, M. (1986). Development of a structured interview for assessing student use of self-regulated learning strategies. American Educational Research Journal, 23(4), 614-628.


Additional Files






How to Cite

Conklin, M., & Jairam, D. (2021). The Effects of Co-Teaching Zones of Regulation on Elementary Students’ Social, Emotional, and Academic Risk Behaviors. Advanced Journal of Social Science, 8(1), 171–192.