Sociodemographic Factors and Adoption of Social Media as a Management Tool by Managers and Administrators in Selected Non-Governmental Organizations in Kigali, Rwanda


  • Onesmus Marete Mount Kenya University Rwanda
  • Alice Kituyi Mount Kenya University Rwanda
  • Joyce Kirabo Mount Kenya University Rwanda


Social media use has gained prominence in the public as well as in the work environment as a way of quickly and widely sharing information and its crucial role in management has been elevated even more by the covid-19 pandemic which has severely limited human physical interaction. This study was carried out to explore the sociodemographic factors and adoption of social media as a management tool among managers and administrators in selected Non-Governmental Organizations in Kigali Rwanda. The study focused on the popular social media applications that can be of use in management namely, Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, video-conferencing applications, and YouTube. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design with an online survey questionnaire administered to a sample size of 217 respondents purposively sampled from six selected NGOs in Kigali Rwanda. Findings indicated that the overall social media adoption was quite high with WhatsApp being the most popular app. Several respondents’ characteristics such as age, education and job level showed statistically significant association with adoption of particular social media applications. Findings, however, revealed no structured approach to social media use in most of the surveyed NGOs. The study concluded that the overall adoption rate of social media was quite high but with a huge disparity in usage rates of specific social media applications and that certain sociodemographic factors such as education level and training appeared as strong predictors of social media adoption. This study recommended therefore, that NGOs should determine the applications that support their business model and provide comprehensive policies and support to encourage the employees to adopt the chosen social media applications in their managerial functions. The policy makers should also promote the modifiable sociodemographic factors that influence social media adoption such as education level and training.


Non-Governmental Organizations, Social media applications, Social media adoption


Download data is not yet available.


Abukhzam, M., & Lee, A. (2010). Workforce attitude on technology adoption and diffusion. Built Hum. Environ. Rev, (3).

Aghaunor, L., & Fotoh, X. (2006). Factors affecting e-commerce adoption in Nigerian banks. Unpublished master’s thesis. Jonkoping University, Sweden.

Alrawabdeh, W. (2014). Environmental factors affecting mobile commerce adoption- An exploratory study on the telecommunication firms in Jordan. Int. J. Bus. Soc. Sci, 5(8).

Andriole, S.J. (2010). Business impact of Web 2.0 Technologies. CACM, 53(12).

Arpaci, I, Yardimci, Y, Ozkan, S, & Turetken, O. (2012). Organizational adoption of mobile communication technologies. European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Conference on Information System. June 7-8, Munich, Germany.

Azucar, D., Marengo, D., & Settanni, M. (2018). Predicting the Big 5 personality traits from digital footprints on social media: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 124(1).

Benkler, Y. (2006). The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Bertot, J.C, Jaeger, P.T., & Hansen, D. (2012). The impact of polices on government social media usage: issues, challenges, and recommendations. Government Information Quarterly, 29.

Bhattacherjee, A. (2012). Social Science Research: Principles, Methods, and Practices. Global Text Project.

Bortree, D., & Seltzer, T. (2009). Dialogic strategies and outcomes: An analysis of environmental advocacy groups‟ Facebook profile. Public Relat. Rev, 35.

Bultum, A.G. (2014). Factors affecting adoption of electronic banking system in Ethiopian banking industry. J. Manage. Inf. Syst. Ecommerce. 1(1).

BusinessTech. (2019). These are the biggest social media and chat platforms in 2019. BusinessTech.

Chong, A.Y., Lin, B., Ooi, K., & Raman, M. (2015). Factors affecting the adoption level of e-commerce: An empirical study. J. Comput. Inf. Syst, 50(20).

Christensen, M., & Remler, D. (2009). Information and communication technology in U.S. health care: Why is adoption so slow and is slower better? J. Health Polit. Policy Law, 34(6).

Cicek, M., & Ozcan, S. (2013). Examining the demographic features of Turkish social media users and their attitudes towards social media tools. IEEE.

Clement, J. (2019). Number of global social network users 2010-2021. Hamburg: Statista.

Cochran, G.C. (1977). Sampling Techniques. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Cooks, N. (2008). Enterprise 2.0: How Social Software Will Change the Future of Work. London: Gower.

Czaja, S. J., Charness, N., Fisk, A. D., Hertzog, C., Nair, S. N., Rogers, W. A., & Sharit, J. (2006). Factors predicting the use of technology: Findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE). Psychology & Aging, 21.

Dahnil, M.I., Marzuki, K.M., Langgat, J., & Fabeil, N.F. (2014). Factors influencing SMEs adoption of social media marketing. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 148.

Davis, F.D (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and user acceptance of information technology, MIS Quarterly, 13.

Davis, F.D., Bagozzi, R.P., & Warshaw, P.R. (1989). User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models. Manage Sci, 35.

Demiris, G., Rantz, M. J., Aud, M. A., Marek, K. D., Tyrers, W., Skubic, M., & Hussam, A. A. (2004). Older adults’ attitudes towards and perceptions of ‘smart home’ technologies: a pilot study. Medical Informatics & The Internet in Medicine 29.

Dutot, V. and Bergeron, F. (2016), From strategic orientation to social media orientation: Improving SMEs’ performance on social media. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 23(4).

Evans, D. (2012). Social media marketing: an hour a day. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Addison Wesley.

FPRM. (2019). Social Media Tools, What You Need to Know. The Firm of Public Relations and Marketing. FPRM.

Freeman, J. (2016). Digital civic participation in Australian local governments: everyday practices and opportunities for engagement. In Sobaci MZ (ed.) Social Media and Local Governments. San Antonio: Springer International Publishing.

Funk, K.L., Stevens, V.J., Appel, L.J., Bauck, A., Brantley, P.J., Champagne, C.M., … Kyung, H. (2008). Design and implementation of an interactive website to support long-term maintenance of weight loss. J Med Internet Res, 10(1).

Gefen, D. (2003). TAM or just plain habit: A look at experienced online shoppers, Journal of End User Computing, 15.

Graham. (2005). Web 2.0 and Why? Retrieved on 2020, Mar 21 from: http//

Greenberg, J., & MacAulay, M. (2009). NPO 2.0? Exploring the web presence of environmental nonprofit organisations in Canada. Global Media Journal- Canadian Edition, 2.

Helms, R.W., Booij, E., & Spruit, M.R. (2012). Reaching out: Involving users in innovation tasks through social media. Madrid: ECIS.

Heinz, M.S. (2013). Exploring predictors of technology adoption among older adults. Iowa State University Digital Repository: Graduate Theses and Dissertations. 13155.

Hoffmann, C.P., Lutz, C., & Meckel, M. (2014). Social media readiness in public administration-developing a research framework. Social Science Research Network.

Hofmann, S., Beverungen, D., & Räckers, M. (2013). What makes local governments’ online communications successful? Insights from a multi-method analysis of Facebook. Government Information Quarterly, 30(4).

Horton, R.P., Buck, T., Waterson, P.E., & Clegg, C.W. (2010). Explaining intranet use with the technology acceptance model, Journal of Information Technology 16.

Kantar. (2020). COVID-19 Barometer: Consumer attitudes, media habits and expectations. Kantar Group and Affiliates. Retrieved from on 31/07/2020.

Kaplan, A.M., & Haenlein, M. (2010) Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Bus. Horizons, 53(1).

Khan, A., & Woosley, J.M. (2011). Comparison of contemporary technology acceptance models and evaluation of the best fit for health industry organisations. IJCSET, 1(1).

Khoumbati, K., & Thermistocleous, M. (2006). Integrating the IT infrastructure in health care organisations: A proposition of influential factors. The Electronic Journal of e-Government, 4(1).

Kim, Y., Kim, M., & Kim, K. (2010). Factors influencing the adoption of social Media in the perspective of information needs. Paper presented at the iConference held at Urban-Champaign University of Illinois 3-6 February 2010, Illinois, USA.

Lederer, A.L., Maupin, D.J., Sena, M.P., & Zhuang, Y. (2000). The technology acceptance model and the World Wide Web, Decis Support Syst 29.

Lee, H.H., & Lee, S.E. (2010). Internet vs mobile services: Comparisons of gender and ethnicity. J. Res. Interact. Marketing, 4(4).

Lewis, D. (2014). The Management of Non-Governmental Development Organizations (3rd ed.). London: Routledge.

Li, C. (2010). Open Leadership: How Social Technology Can Transform the Way You Lead. Jossey: Bass.

Looy, A.V. (2016). Social Media Management: Technologies and Strategies for Creating Business Value. Switzerland: Springer.

Mainka, A., Hartmann, S., & Stock, WG. (2014) Government and social media: a case study of 31 informational world Cities. 47th Hawaii international conference on system sciences, Waikoloa, 6–9 January, New York: IEEE.

Management Accounting for Non-governmental Organisations. (2017). Financial Management Essentials A Handbook for NGOs. Oxford: MANGO.

Manfreda, K.L., Bosnjak, M., Berzelak, J., Hass, I. and Vehovar, V. (2008), Web surveys versus other survey modes: a meta-analysis comparing response rates. International Journal of Market Research, 50(1).

Mangold, W.G., & Faulds, D.J. (2009). Social media: the new hybrid element of the promotion mix. Business Horizons, 52.

McMellon, C. A., & Schiffman, L. G. (2002). Cybersenior empowerment: How some older individuals are taking control of their lives. The Journal of Applied Gerontology, 21.

Morrell, R. W., Mayhorn, C. B., & Bennett, J. (2000). A survey of World Wide Web use in middle-aged and older adults. Human Factors, 42.

Muhammad, K.A., Mooko, N.P., Oladokun, O.S., & Angelina, T. (2017). Factors affecting adoption of social media by women’s non-governmental organisations (WNGOs). International Journal of Library and Information Science, 9(9).

Nah, S., & Saxton, G.D. (2012). Modeling the adoption and use of social media by nonprofit organisations. New Media & Society, 15(2).

Newton, J. (2014). Models of social media adoption in emergency management organisations. In Australia and New Zealand Disaster Management Conference: Earth: Fire and Rain, 5-7 May 2014, Surfers Paradise, Gold Coast, Queensland.

Nisar, T.M., Prabhakar, G., & Strakova, L. (2019). Social media information benefits, knowledge management and smart organizations. Journal of Business Research, 94.

NISR. (2016). Rwanda Demographic Health Survey 2014/2015. NISR

Oliveira, T., & Martins, M.F. (2011). Literature review of information technology adoption models at firm level. TElectron. J. Inf. Syst. Eval, 14(1).

Olupot, C., Kituyi, M.G., & Noguera, J. (2014). Factors affecting the adoption of electronic customer relationship management information system in SMEs. J. Stud. Soc. Sci. 8(1).

Overberg, R., Otten, W., Ade, M., Toussaint, P., Westenbrink, J., & Zwetsloot-Schonk, B. (2010). How breast cancer patients want to search for and retrieve information from stories of other patients on the Internet: an online randomized controlled experiment. J Med Internet Res 12(1).

Park, Y., & Lee, J. (2014). Factors affecting electronic medical record system adoption in small Korean Hospitals. Health Res. Inf. 20(3).

Pavlou, P.A. (2014). Consumer Acceptance of Electronic Commerce: Integrating Trust and Risk with the Technology Acceptance Model, Int J Electron Commerce 7.

Picazo. S., Gutiérrez, I., & Luna, L.F. (2012). Understanding risks, benefits, and strategic alternatives of social media applications in the public sector. Government Information Quarterly, 29(4).

Prodanova, J., & Looy, A.V. (2019). How Beneficial Is Social Media for Business Process Management? A Systematic Literature Review. IEEE Access, 7.

Robinson, L. (2009). A summary of diffusion of innovations. Enabling Change. New York: The Free Press.

Rudasill, L.M. (2006). The warning voice- NGOs and information. In K.G. Saur (Ed.) changing roles of NGOs in the creation, storage and dissemination of information in developing countries. Hague; IFLA publication.

Rwanda Governance Board. (2018). Annual Report 2017-2018. Kigali: RGB

Safko, L., & Brake, D.K. (2012). The social media bible: Tactics, Tools, and Strategies for Business Success. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Sahin, I. (2006). Detailed review of Rogers‟ diffusion of innovation theory and educational technology-related studies based on Rogers‟ theory. Turk. J. Educ. Technol, 5(2).

Salamon, L., & Anheier, H. (1992). In search of the Non-Profit Sector: In Search of Definitions. Voluntas, 33(2).

The Global Digital Report. (2019) Retrieved on 2020, March 21 from

The Republic of Rwanda. (2017). 7 Years Government Programme: National Strategy for Transformation (NST 1) 2017 – 2024. Kigali: The Republic of Rwanda.

Tornatzky, L., & Fleischer, M. (1990). The Process of Technology Innovation. MA: Lexington Books.

Totolo, A. (2007). Information technology adoption by principals in Botswana secondary schools. Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations. Paper 1229.

Umemuro, H. (2004). Computer attitudes, cognitive abilities, and technology usage among older Japanese adults. Gerontechnology, 3.

Vanzetta, M., Vellone, E., Molin, A.D., Rocco, G., Marinis, M.G., & Rosaria, A. (2014). Communication with the public in the health-care system: a descriptive study of the use of social media in Local Health Authorities and public hospitals in Italy. Ann Ist Super Sanità , 50(2).

Walters, R.D., Burnett, E., & Lucas, J. (2009). Engaging stakeholders through social networking: How nonprofit organisations are using Facebook. Public Relat. Rev, 35.

Wanner, M., Martin-Diener, E., Bauer, G., Braun-Fahrländer, C., & Martin, B.W. (2010). Comparison of trial participants and open access users of a web-based physical activity intervention regarding adherence, attrition, and repeated participation. J Med Internet Res, 12(1).

Weber, L. (2009). Marketing to the social web: how digital customer communities build your business (2nd ed). New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.

Zhao, S. (2006). Do Internet users have more social ties? A call for differentiated analyses of Internet use. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11 (3).






Survey Article

How to Cite

Marete, O., Kituyi, A. ., & Kirabo, J. (2021). Sociodemographic Factors and Adoption of Social Media as a Management Tool by Managers and Administrators in Selected Non-Governmental Organizations in Kigali, Rwanda. Advanced Journal of Social Science, 8(1), 121–144. Retrieved from