Improving Mental Health Outcomes for Black and Minority Ethnic Communities: A Quantitative Study into Perception of Control

Authors

Abstract

Background: Although the disparities in mental health outcomes for ethnic minorities in the United Kingdom are well-documented, little is known about the role perception of control plays in the experiences of service users and its role in perpetuating or improving health inequalities. This quantitative methods study investigated the perspectives of the members of these communities from the Locus of Control domain.

Methods: A small-scale survey (N=50), applied a purposive sampling method to recruit mental health service users of African and Caribbean origin from a South London Borough to complete two structured questionnaires. Data were analysed using SPSS in the examination of the scores, various demographic variables, linear relationships, and other reliability tests.

Results: Key findings indicate a moderate to high externality in LOC scores for participants, in general, and mental health milieus, with some remarkable differences in ethnicity, gender, and age. 

Conclusion: The results present some implications and opportunities for mental health services, policy, and professionals in engaging with clients from this target group towards addressing the inequality of outcomes.

Keywords:

Black and Minority Ethnic, Locus of Control, Mental health

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Monitoring the Mental Health Act in 2012/13. Care Quality Commission. 2014. http://www.cqc.org.uk/public/publications/reports/mental-health-act-2012/13. Accessed 23 May 2019.

Bhui K, Stansfeld S, Hull S, Priebe S, Mole F, Feder G. Ethnic variations in pathways to and use of specialist mental health services in the UK: systematic review. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2003; 182:105-116.

Robinson M, Keating F, Robertson S. Ethnicity, Gender and Mental Health. Diversity in Health and Care. 2011; 8: 81-92.

Joseph, S. Exploring the relationship between Locus of Control and the perception of the quality of mental health care experienced by African & Caribbean service users. 2018. Thesis or dissertation. Available at: pure.royalholloway.ac.uk

Linney, C., Ye, S., Redwood, S. et al. “Crazy person is crazy person. It doesn’t differentiateâ€: an exploration into Somali views of mental health and access to healthcare in an established UK Somali community. Int J Equity Health (2020); 19, 190. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-020-01295-0

Keating F. Theorising 'race', ethnicity and mental health. In Craig G, Atkin K, Chattoo S, Flynn R, editors. UNDERSTANDING 'RACE' AND ETHNICITY: Theory, history, policy practice. Bristol: Policy Press; 2012. pp. 209-225.

Adebowale L. Independent Commission on Mental Health & Policing Report. 2013. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/10_05_13_report.pdf. Accessed 18 July 2018.

Mantovani N, Pizzolati M, Edge D. Exploring the Relationship between Stigma and Help-Seeking for Mental Illness in African-Descended Faith Communities in the UK. Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy. 2017; 20 (3), 373-384.

Centre for Mental Health. Against the odds: Evaluation of the Mind Birmingham Up My Street programme. 2017. https://www.centreformentalhealth.org.uk/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=14f86686-7882-43cb-b64e-1540f12ab01a. Accessed 15 December 2018.

Keating F, Robertson D, McCulloch A, Francis E. Breaking the circles of fear: a review of the relationship between mental health services and African and Caribbean communities. London: The Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health; 2002.

Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer 2013, Public Mental Health Priorities: Investing in the Evidence. Department of Health. 2013. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/413196/CMO_web_doc.pdf. Accessed 20 May 2018

Closing the gap: priorities for essential change in mental health. Department of Health. 2014. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/281250/Closing_the_gap_V2_-_17_Feb_2014.pdf. Accessed 20 May 2018.

Keating F. ‘Racialised Communities, Producing Madness and Dangerousness’. Intersectionalities: A Global Journal of Social Work Analysis, Research, Polity, and Practice; 2016; 5: (3), 1-13

Kotecha N. Black and minority ethnic women. In: Fernando S, Keating F. editors. Mental health in a multi-ethnic society: a multidisciplinary handbook. London: Routledge; 2008. pp. 58–70.

Keating F, Robertson D. 'Fear, Black People and Mental Illness: A Vicious Circle?'. Health & Social Care in the Community. 2004; 12, (5), 439-447

Keating F. Social Inequalities and Mental Health: An Integrative Approach. In: Bell A. editor. Beyond the Water Towers: The Unfinished Revolution in Mental Health Services 1985-2005. London: Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health: 2005

Fearon P, Kirkbride J, Morgan C, Dazzan P, Morgan K, Lloyd T, Hutchinson G, Tarrant J, Fung W, Holloway J, Malletti R, Harrison G, Leff J, Jones PB, Murray RM. Incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in ethnic minority groups: results from the MRC AESOP Study. Psychological Medicine. 2006; 36: 1541-1550.

Iqbal, Neelam. Minority Mental Health: Intersections between Faith and Ethnicity (January 16, 2021).

Available at: SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3767398 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3767398

Smith K, Bhui K, Cipriani A. COVID-19, mental health and ethnic minorities. Evidence-Based Mental Health. 2020 Aug 1; 23(3):89–90.

Edge D. Why are you cast down, o my soul? Exploring intersections of ethnicity, gender, depression, spirituality and implications for Black British Caribbean women’s mental health. Critical Public Health. 2013; 23 (1) 39-48.

Cheng C, Cheung S, Chio JH, Chan MS. Cultural Meaning of Perceived Control: A Meta-Analysis of Locus of Control and Psychological Symptoms Across 18 Cultural Regions. Psychological Bulletin. 2013; 139 (1) 152–188

Rotter JB. Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of Reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied. 1966: 80, 1–28. doi:10.1037/h0092976.

Bandura A. Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. 1977.

Hattrup K, O’ Connell M, Labrador J. Incremental validity of locus of control after controlling for cognitive ability and consciousness. Journal of Business and Psychology. 2005; 19, 461‑81.

Tigani X, Artemiadis AK, Alexopoulos EC, Chrousos GP, Darviri C. Gender differences in Greek centenarians. A cross-sectional nation-wide study, examining multiple socio-demographic and personality factors and health locus of control. BMC Geriatrics. 2011; 11, (87), 1-8.

Reknes I, Visockaite G, Liefooghe A, Lovakov A, Einarsen SV. Locus of Control Moderates the Relationship Between Exposure to Bullying Behaviors and Psychological Strain. Front Psychol. 2019; 10, 1323. Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6563764/pdf/fpsyg-10-01323.pdf

Rotter JB. Some problems and misconceptions related to the construct of internal versus external control of reinforcement. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1975; 43, 56‑7.

Dijkstraa MTM, Beersma B, Evers A. Reducing conflict related employee strain: The benefits of an internal locus of control and a problem solving conflict management strategy. Work and Stress. 2011; 25, 167 84.

Declerck CH, Boone C, De Brabander B. On feeling in control: A biological theory for individual differences in control perception. Brain and Cognition. 2006; 62, 143–176.

Wallston KA, Wallston BS. Health locus of control scales. In H. Lefcourt, editor. Research with the locus of control construct New York: Academic Press. 1981. Vol.1, pp. 189-243.

Wallston KA. Hocus-pocus, the focus isn’t strictly on locus: Rotter’s social learning theory modified for health. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 1992; 16:183-199.

Seeman M, Seeman TE. Health behaviour and personal autonomy: A longitudinal study of the sense of control in illness. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour. 1983; 24, 144-160.

Marshall G. A multidimensional analysis of internal health locus of control beliefs: Separating the wheat from the chaff. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1991; 61: 483-491.

Abella R, Heslin R. Health, Locus of Control, Values, and the Behavior of Family and Friends: An Integrated Approach to Understanding Preventive Health Behavior. Basic and Applied Social Psychology. 1984; 5, (4): 283-293.

Strickland BR. Internal-external expectancies and health-related behaviors. J. consult. clin, Psychol. 1978; 46: 1192-1211.

Norman P, Bennett P, Smith C, Murphy S. Health Locus of Control and Health Behaviour. Journal of Health Psychology. 1998; 3: 170-180.

Duffy ME. Determinants of health promotion in midlife women. Nursing Research. 1988; 37: 358-362.

Muhlenkamp AF, Brown NJ, Sands D. Determinants of health promotion activities in nursing clinic clients. Nursing Research. 1985; 34: 327-333.

Steptoe A, Wardle J, Vmck J, Tuomisto M, Holte A, Wichstrom L. Personality and attitudinal correlates of healthy and unhealthy lifestyles in young adults. Psychology and Health. 1994; 9: 331-343.

Wood WD, Letak JK. A mental-health locus of control scale. Person Individ Difference. 1982; 3: 87-88.

Judge TA, Erez A, Bono JE, Thoresen CJ. Are measures of self-esteem, neuroticism, locus of control, and generalized self-efficacy indicators of a common core construct?. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2002; 83: 693–710.

Buhagiar K, Parsonage L, Osborn DPJ. Physical health behaviours and health locus of control in groups with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder and bipolar disorder: a cross-sectional comparative study with groups with non- psychotic mental illness. BMC Psychiatry. 2011; 11 (104): 1-10.

McCabe R, Priebe S. Explanatory models of illness in schizophrenia: comparison of four ethnic groups. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2004; 185: 25-30.

Field A. Comparing Two Means. Discovering Statistics. Video tutorial. 2010. https://www.discoveringstatistics.com/. Accessed 18 October 2019.

UNC Charlotte Department of Psychology To take The Locus of Control Test Click. 2014. (http://www.psych.uncc.edu/pagoolka/LocusofControl-intro.html. Accessed 20 October 2018.

Hill DJ, Bale RM. Development of the Mental Health Locus of Control and Mental Health Locus of Origin Scales. Journal of Personality Assessment. 1980; 44 (2): 148-156.

UNC Charlotte Department of Psychology Locus of Control: based on J.B. Rotter (1966) Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement’ Psychological Monographs. 2014: 80 (1), Whole No. 609. http://www.psych.uncc.edu/pagoolka/LC.html. Accessed 20 October 2018.

Halpert R, Hill R. 28 Measures of Locus of Control. 2011. http://teachinternalcontrol.com/uploads/LOC_Measures__1_.pdf. Accessed 25 October 2018.

Wallston KA, Wallston BS, DeVellis R. Development of multidimensional health locus of control (MHLC) scales. Health Education Monographs. 1978; 6:160-170.

Kesavayuth, D.; Poyago-Theotoky, J.; Zikos, V. Locus of control, health and healthcare utilization. Econ. Model. 2020, 86, 227–238

Sigurvinsdotti, R, Thorisdottir, IE, Gylfason, HF. The Impact of COVID-19 on Mental Health: The Role of Locus on Control and Internet Use. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2020; 17: 6985; 1-15

Downloads

Published

2021-03-22

Issue

Section

Survey Article

How to Cite

Joseph, S., & Keating, F. (2021). Improving Mental Health Outcomes for Black and Minority Ethnic Communities: A Quantitative Study into Perception of Control. Advanced Journal of Social Science, 8(1), 37–53. Retrieved from https://journals.aijr.org/index.php/ajss/article/view/3408