Solution Methods for Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations Using Lie Symmetry Groups
For formulating mathematical models, engineering problems and physical problems, Nonlinear ordinary differential equations(NODEs) are used widely. Nevertheless, explicit solutions can be obtained for very few NODEs, due to lack of techniques to obtain explicit solutions. Therefore methods to obtain approximate solution for NODEs are used widely. Although symmetry groups of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) can be used to obtain exact solutions however, these techniques are not widely used. The purpose of this paper is to present applications of Lie symmetry groups to obtain exact solutions of NODEs . In this paper we connect different methods,theorems and definitions of Lie symmetry groups from different references and we solve first order and second order NODEs. In this analysis three different methods are used to obtain exact solutions of NODEs. Using applications of these symmetry methods, drawbacks and advantages of these different symmetry methods are discussed and some examples have been illustrated graphically. Focus is first placed on discussing about the notion of symmetry groups of the ODEs. Focus is then changed to apply them to find general solutions for NODEs under three different methods. First we find suitable change of variables that convert given first order NODE into variable separable form using these symmetry groups. As another method to find general solutions for first order NODEs, we find particular type of solution curves called invariant solution curves under Lie symmetry groups and we use these invariant solution curves to obtain the general solutions. We find general solutions for the second order NODEs by reducing their order to first order using Lie symmetry groups.
Keywords:differential equations, nonlinear, Lie symmetry groups
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