Advanced Journal of Graduate Research <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="" alt="AJGR" /></a>Advanced Journal of Graduate Research is a multidisciplinary, international journal featuring the work of graduate students and young researchers. This journal seeks to disseminate the work of emerging students who focus on scientific/technical content, regardless of their academic discipline. <em>Adv. J. Grad. Res.</em> publishes research carried out by graduate students and young researchers (Bachelor's degree students and Master's degree students) that sound scientifically and technically valid. This journal will serve as a global platform to broadcast new research initiatives being carried out by today's brightest youths as part of their graduate project.<br />Advanced Journal of Graduate Research is published by AIJR publisher (India) and registered with CrossRef with doi: 10.21467/ajgr and ISSN of this journal is 2456-7108 [online].</p> AIJR Publisher en-US Advanced Journal of Graduate Research 2456-7108 <div id="copyrightNotice">Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to this journal and its publisher <a title="About AIJR Publisher" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">AIJR</a> (India). Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print, and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media, or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.<br />Click <a title="Copyright Policy" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a> for more information on Copyright policy<br />Click <a title="Licensing Policy" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a> for more information on Licensing policy</div> Therapeutic Application of Honey Against Ige-Mediated Type 1 Hypersensitivity Reactions: A Systematic Review <p>In contemporary times, the use of traditional remedies is still evident. One of the primary items foremost emphasized today is honey. Aside from its natural sweetener capacity, modern science highlights its potential therapeutic capabilities, including anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties in different Type I Hypersensitivity conditions. This systematic review analyzed nine credible experimental studies to objectify different types of honey and its application and effect in different Type I Hypersensitivity clinical manifestations. The abundance of evidence granting IgE mediated disorders which includes Allergic Asthma, Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis, Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis, Allergic Rhinitis, and Atopic Dermatitis in both preclinical and clinical analysis revealed honey to be a contributing factor in suppressing different clinical manifestations of the associated conditions. The systematic review can evaluate and categorize the potential therapeutic capabilities of honey in different IgE-mediated Type I Hypersensitivity Reactions, thus, enabling a comprehended integration towards assisting the application within the clinical setting.</p> Daphne Michaella D Quitain Ma. Jenina B Balasolla Danielle Krisha S Barber Rencel Shane J Cainglet Junnela F Colorico Allyna Kristel R Escantilla Aira Palomeno Kristine Claire M Quiambao Luis Dominick B Antig Copyright (c) 2023 Daphne Michaella D Quitain, Ma. Jenina B Balasolla, Danielle Krisha S Barber, Rencel Shane J Cainglet, Junnela F Colorico, Allyna Kristel R Escantilla, Aira Palomeno, Kristine Claire M Quiambao, Luis Dominick B Antig 2023-12-08 2023-12-08 14 1 51 60 10.21467/ajgr.14.1.51-60 Recent Development on the Extraction Process of Plants Essential Oil and its Effect on Chemical Composition: A Review <p>This study presents a thorough review on different innovative extraction techniques of different plant essential oil derived from its peel, leaves, seeds and shrubs. The review also entails the different pre-treatment processes that affects the quality and recovery of the plant essential oil. Also, discussed the recently developed green extraction method such as Microwave Assisted Hydrodistillation (MAHD), Solvent Free Microwave Extraction (SFME), Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE), Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and Ohmic Heated Assisted Hydrodistillation (OHAD). The impact of these extraction process on the important chemical composition of essential oil is further analyzed in this review. The important parameters in extraction is also studied such as the water to material ratio, extraction temperature, power input and extraction time. Based on the different articles reviewed, it signifies that the innovative extraction method improves the quality and quantity of the essential oil yield. It also improved the number of component that can be extracted in the plant essential oil and its biological activities such as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Thus this review aims to emphasize the potential of the newly developed essential oil extraction techniques that would help to boon the pharmaceuticals, food and agriculture industry.</p> Randy A Joco Jeffrey A Lavarias Ruel G Peneyra Carolyn Grace Somera Copyright (c) 2023 Randy A Joco, Jeffrey A Lavarias, Ruel G Peneyra, Carolyn Grace Somera 2023-10-14 2023-10-14 14 1 9 20 10.21467/ajgr.14.1.9-20 Utilization of SGLT-2 Inhibitors in Congestive Heart Failure Management <p>Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a progressive condition where the heart cannot pump blood well enough to keep up with volume demand, which results in decreased oxygen perfusion throughout the periphery and vital body organs. This condition affects over six million Americans and is projected to increase by over 46% by the year 2030. By incorporating evidence from research conducted over the past ten years, several studies demonstrate the benefits of sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT-2) inhibitors in managing CHF patients. The glucose-lowering medication works to relieve fluid overload by excreting excess glucose and sodium while also increasing vasodilation and reducing cardiac preload. SGLT-2 inhibitors also have an anti-inflammatory effect that decreases epicardial adipose deposition, which relieves oxidative stress on the heart. In addition to the mainstay of medical management for CHF patients, SGLT-2 inhibitors have reduced exacerbations that are often life-threatening and improved overall quality of life by reducing morbidity and mortality.</p> Anna Daniels Deborah Bank Copyright (c) 2023 Anna Daniels, Deborah Bank 2023-10-14 2023-10-14 14 1 3 8 10.21467/ajgr.14.1.3-8 Remarks on the Solution of Fractional Ordinary Differential Equations Using Laplace Transform Method <p>In this work we used the Laplace transform method to solve linear fractional-order differential equation, fractional ordinary differential equations with constant and variable coefficients. The solutions were expressed in terms of Mittag-Leffler functions, and then written in a compact simplified form. As a special case for simplicity, the order of the derivative determined the order of the solution that was obtained. This paper presented several case studies involving the implementation of Fractional Order calculus-based models, whose results demonstrate the importance of Fractional Order Calculus.</p> John Ojima Mamman Gloria Ojima-Ojo Oguche Usman Akwu Copyright (c) 2023 John Ojima Mamman, Gloria Ojima-Ojo Oguche, Usman Akwu 2023-10-14 2023-10-14 14 1 21 26 10.21467/ajgr.14.1.21-26 Effect of Gamma-Irradiated Ceramic Wastewater Sludge on Photosynthetic Pigments of Phaseolus Vulgaris L. (Cv. Valentino and Cv. Nebraska) Plants <p>The common bean plant is a highly polymorphic species, annual herb, erect and bushy, 20–60 cm tall, or twining with stems 2–3 m long, with a taproot and nitrogen nodules which the bacteria could convert nitrogen gas and stores it in the common bean plant roots. Leaves are alternate, green, or purple, trifoliolate, stipulate, petiolate, markedly pulvinus at base; leaflets ovate, entire; acuminate, 6–15 cm long, 3–11 cm wide. Many soils have been contaminated with several pollutants, mostly arising from wastes of human activities such as the use of pesticides, sewer sludge, mining and smelting sources, radioactive substances, and industrial dischargers. These different contaminants can degrade the soil and cause a negative impact on the plant due to disturbing nutrient cycling within ecosystems and subsequently human health. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which the plant may cope with heavy metals stress represented in this study in the form of industrial ceramic wastewater sludge. And, evaluating the role of gamma radiation on ceramic wastewater sludge, could reduce the percentage of the endogenous levels of heavy metals in ceramic sludge. This study investigates the influence of Photosynthetic pigments of the two common bean cultivars Valentino and Nebraska which are grown in light soil clay/sand (1:1) incorporated with ceramic-wastewater sludge (CWWS) non-irradiated (1% and 2%) and gamma-irradiated (2.5 kGy and 10 kGy) for 30 days. The application of non-irradiated CWWS induced an elevation in the contents of chlorophylls a, b, and carotenoids in the two cultivars while a reverse trend was observed in the leaves of both cultivars treated with gamma irradiated CWWS.</p> Ghada Salem Sasi Magda M El-Araby Copyright (c) 2023 Ghada Salem Sasi, Magda M El-Araby 2023-12-07 2023-12-07 14 1 27 37 10.21467/ajgr.14.1.27-37 Determination of Heavy Metals in Root and Shoot of Durum Wheat, Plant Soil: Translocation and Bioaccumulation Factor <p>Heavy metals are uptake by the soil, transfer and accumulate in the various parts of durum wheat plant. The exposure of wheat crops to heavy metals poses threat to their physiological growth and human health through consumption. The study aimed at finding the concentration of heavy metals in durum wheat varieties, transfer and bioaccumulation ability, and effect of organic and conventional farming on heavy metals. The wheat samples (under organic and conventional farming) were randomly sampled at tillering, jointing, and grain filling stage. They were digested with ultra-microwave and analyzed with inductively coupled plasma. The results showed that Zn emerged as the highest concentration in the soil, root, and shoot of all wheat samples and mostly followed by Cr, Cu, Pb, and Cd. With few instances, an order of Cu&gt;Zn&gt;Cd&gt;Cr&gt;Pb&gt;As translocation and accumulation was observed. Statistical study (α .05 and CI of 95%) revealed conventional farming increased heavy metals in the soil. Therefore, organic farming should be adopted to prevent heavy metal contamination of wheat plants and higher food chain.</p> Mario Berrettoni Silvia Zamponi Paolo Conti Martina Fattobene Fuyong Liu Martin Aborah Copyright (c) 2023 Mario Berrettoni, Silvia Zamponi, Paolo Conti, Martina Fattobene, Fuyong Liu, Martin Aborah 2023-12-08 2023-12-08 14 1 38 50 10.21467/ajgr.14.1.38-50