Advanced Journal of Graduate Research <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="" alt="AJGR" /></a>Advanced Journal of Graduate Research is a multidisciplinary, international journal featuring the work of graduate students and young researchers. This journal seeks to disseminate the work of emerging students who focus on scientific/technical content, regardless of their academic discipline. <em>Adv. J. Grad. Res.</em> publishes research carried out by graduate students and young researchers (Bachelor's degree students and Master's degree students) that sound scientifically and technically valid. This journal will serve as a global platform to broadcast new research initiatives being carried out by today's brightest youths as part of their graduate project.<br />Advanced Journal of Graduate Research is published by AIJR publisher (India) and registered with CrossRef with doi: 10.21467/ajgr and ISSN of this journal is 2456-7108 [online].</p> AIJR Publisher en-US Advanced Journal of Graduate Research 2456-7108 <div id="copyrightNotice">Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to this journal and its publisher <a title="About AIJR Publisher" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">AIJR</a> (India). Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print, and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media, or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.<br />Click <a title="Copyright Policy" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a> for more information on Copyright policy<br />Click <a title="Licensing Policy" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a> for more information on Licensing policy</div> Why is Essential Tremor so Difficult to Treat? A Literature Review <p>Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder and affects tens of millions of individuals worldwide. It is characterized by isolated upper-limb tremors for at least three years without other neurological signs or tremors in other locations. Despite ET being a widespread movement disorder, its etiology and pathophysiology are poorly understood. This lack of understanding poses significant challenges towards the development of treatments and cures. There is no cure for ET, and current treatments for ET are limited and are often insufficient. ET symptoms can differ greatly between patients, and phenotyping is the only method for diagnosis. ET often overlaps with other disorders including dystonia and Parkinson’s disease, which further complicates diagnosis and treatment. Current treatments begin with pharmacotherapy, and progress to surgical options in drug-resistant patients. There is ongoing research into non-invasive electrical stimulation treatments that may prove to be safe and effective; however, further research is needed. The aim of this review is to assess the literature and summarize why ET is so difficult to treat. We evaluate the efficacy of current treatments, and the potential of future treatments. We summarize four reasons why ET remains so difficult to treat: 1) the unknown etiology and pathophysiology, 2) the lack of a suitable animal model, 3) difficulties with diagnosis, and 4) absence of personalized treatments. Despite the current challenges, ET remains an active area of research and novel experimental treatments may produce safe and effective non-invasive therapeutic options for ET.</p> Anna Kieu Anh Dinh Adesewa Janet Adeoti Nicholas Donald James Strzalkowski Copyright (c) 2022 Anna Kieu Anh Dinh, Adesewa Janet Adeoti, Nicholas Donald James Strzalkowski 2023-02-24 2023-02-24 13 1 29 36 10.21467/ajgr.13.1.29-36 Preparation and Evaluation the Efficacy of Combined Mixture of Finger Root and Robusta Coffee Extracts on Antioxidative Activity <p>Finger Root (FR) and Robusta Coffee (RC) are natural substances known to be beneficial for human health and used as a traditional medicine in various parts of the world. The efficacy of two commonly used extraction techniques [Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and maceration with stirring (MR)] and four different extraction solvents (50% ethanol, 80% ethanol, 100% ethanol and acetone) on antioxidant activity and the Total Phenolic Content (TPC) in both herbs were investigated. The antioxidant potentials of the samples were determined by reducing capacity with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, while the radical scavenging activity using 1,1-Diphenyl2-Picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothia zoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. FR and RC extracts from UAE and using 80% and 50% ethanol as an extraction solvent, respectively, showed the highest antioxidant capacity compared to the other extraction processes. The combined mixtures of FR and RC (CFR) in the weight ratios of 1:1 was prepared and evaluated the antioxidant activity. The CFR extract showed a significant increase of TPC and resulted in its strong radical scavenging activity, quite the same level in comparison to the model antioxidant substance, ascorbic acid, compared to when they were assayed independently. Stability results indicated that the TPC of CFR extract was slightly decreased, by around 8.7% and the IC<sub>50</sub> values of CFR extract showed slightly increased from 7.13 to 9.06 µg/mL in DPPH assay and from 725.72 to 858.65 µg/mL ABTS assay after storage at room temperature over 1 month. Findings suggested that the extraction methods and different solvent polarity significantly affect polyphenol recovery. The combined mixture of FR and RC extracts, which is quite stable and enhances radical scavenging activity, is interesting to increase economic value and utilization in cosmetic industry.</p> Chotirod Kitsomchip Ratana Indranupakorn Copyright (c) 2022 Chotirod Kitsomchip, Ratana Indranupakorn 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 13 1 1 7 10.21467/ajgr.13.1.1-7 Evaluation of Power Performance of Solar Module Using Two Diode Model with MATLAB Simulation <p>This paper tries to represent the difference between single diode and two diode photovoltaic models in terms of efficiency simulated by MATLAB. The research activities done earlier had shown a clear preview that the solar cell can act as concentrated solar cell for increasing the conversion efficiency to a great extant so that output power can be improved to a large scale. Here for showing the manner of concentrated solar action double diode model has been calculated for observing the power difference in comparison with the solar cell of single diode as a convenient one. It has been observed that the photovoltaic module with two diode model is observed as highly efficient in comparison with single diode model. And this two diode model can be treated as highly efficient to convert the solar energy in the electric energy. Also, the behavior of power performance is observed practically which is included in this paper. And finally, a comparison has been drawn out to exhibit the verification of power performance for two diode model using MATLAB simulation. The mostly impact factors considered in this paper are solar irradiance and temperature affecting the power output from PV module.</p> Md. Hafizur Rahman Shahena Akter Suman Chowdhury Copyright (c) 2022 Md. Hafizur Rahman, Shahena Akter, Suman Chowdhury 2023-01-20 2023-01-20 13 1 8 17 10.21467/ajgr.13.1.8-17 Potentiality of Biogas Production from Waste in Bangladesh <p>Biogas is treated as a prominent renewable source in the world for mitigating fuel crises in developing countries. Using biogas technology toxic waste can be handled with an anaerobic process helping to generate natural fertilizers. So, it is a major concern for the researchers to find the proper solution by selecting a suitable renewable energy source in the present world. Biogas is treated as a type of biofuel that can be obtained from the fermentation of organic waste. The main goal of this research is to show the potential of a biogas generator in terms of cow dung, vegetable waste, kitchen waste, and poultry to generate biogas. The produced biogas from the decomposition of the organic waste can be utilized in electric power generation to fulfill the power demand of a house. From the analysis, it is seen that cow dung is the most powerful waste for the generation of biogas in comparison to other types of waste. The calculation shows that cow dung is almost 86.75 % more efficient than the kitchen waste and 44.49 % more efficient than the vegetable waste. And some practical data of a biogas power plant has been included to show the potentiality of biogas in the present world.</p> Md Jakareya Parvez Md Nabiullah Nayan Dilip Kumar Das Suman Chowdhury Copyright (c) 2022 Md Jakareya Parvez, Md Nabiullah Nayan, Dilip Kumar Das, Suman Chowdhury 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 13 1 18 28 10.21467/ajgr.13.1.18-28 Solution Methods for Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations Using Lie Symmetry Groups <p>For formulating mathematical models, engineering problems and physical problems, Nonlinear ordinary differential equations(NODEs) are used widely. Nevertheless, explicit solutions can be obtained for very few NODEs, due to lack of techniques to obtain explicit solutions. Therefore methods to obtain approximate solution for NODEs are used widely. Although symmetry groups of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) can be used to obtain exact solutions however, these techniques are not widely used. The purpose of this paper is to present applications of Lie symmetry groups to obtain exact solutions of NODEs . In this paper we connect different methods,theorems and definitions of Lie symmetry groups from different references and we solve first order and second order NODEs. In this analysis three different methods are used to obtain exact solutions of NODEs. Using applications of these symmetry methods, drawbacks and advantages of these different symmetry methods are discussed and some examples have been illustrated graphically. Focus is first placed on discussing about the notion of symmetry groups of the ODEs. Focus is then changed to apply them to find general solutions for NODEs under three different methods. First we find suitable change of variables that convert given first order NODE into variable separable form using these symmetry groups. As another method to find general solutions for first order NODEs, we find particular type of solution curves called invariant solution curves under Lie symmetry groups and we use these invariant solution curves to obtain the general solutions. We find general solutions for the second order NODEs by reducing their order to first order using Lie symmetry groups.</p> Disanayakage Hashan Sanjaya Perera Dilruk Gallage Copyright (c) 2022 Disanayakage Hashan Sanjaya Perera, Dilruk Gallage 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 13 1 37 61 10.21467/ajgr.13.1.37-61