Removal of Heavy Metals from Stormwater Using Porous Concrete Pavement
This study aimed to investigate the heavy metals, i.e. Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn removal efficiency from stormwater runoff of a porous concrete pavement (PCP). A model of PCP was designed with the porosity and co-efficient of permeability of the pavement were 27.2% and 1.83 cm/sec, respectively. Artificial stormwater containing heavy metals are passed through the pavement at a constant rainfall rate to mimic the stormwater rainfall-runoff condition. The artificial stormwater infiltrated through the pavement were then collected at two different pavement layers at different time instances. From the experimental investigations, it is observed that Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn concentrations are significantly reduced in the treated stormwater. At the first collection point which is located below the sub-base layer and coarse sand layer of the pavement, the concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn reduced 56%, 67% and 93% respectively compared to their initial concentration, Ni concentration reduced only 20%. At the second collection point which is located below the coarse and fine sand layers beneath the pavement, the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni are reduced 92%, 89%, 100%, 100%, respectively.
Keywords:Porous concrete pavement, heavy metal removal, stormwater, Pavement layers, artificial rainfall
M. Turco., G. Brunetti, S.A. Palermo, G. Capano, G. Grossi, M. Maiolo and P. Piro, “On the environmental benefits of a permeable pavement: metals potential removal efficiency and Life Cycle Assessment”, Urban Water Journal, pp.1-9, 2020.
D. K. Hein, “Development of an Asce Standard for Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement,” Of the 2014 Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada Montréal, Québec, Vol. 416, pp. 1–15, 2014.
N. Delatte, D. Miller and A. Mrkajic, “Portland cement pervious concrete pavement: Field performance investigation on parking lot and roadway pavements”, RMC Research & Education Foundation, pp. 76. 2007. Retrieved from http://trid.trb.org/view.aspx?id=1152804
R. Reza and G. Singh, “Heavy metal contamination and its indexing approach for river water”, International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 785–792, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03326187
ACI, “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete”, In American Concrete Institute, Vol. 2007, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/0262-5075(85)90032-6
H. M. Imran, S. Akib and M. R. Karim, “Permeable pavement and stormwater management systems: A review”, Environmental Technology (United Kingdom), Vol. 34, No. 18, pp. 2649–2656, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2013.782573
M. Scholz and P. Grabowiecki, “Review of permeable pavement systems”, Building and Environment, Vol. 42, No. 11, pp. 3830–3836, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.11.016
W. Martin, M. Sumanasooriya, N. B. Kaye and B. Putman, “Design of Porous Pavements for Improved Water Quality and Reduced Runoff”, Handbook of Environmental Engineering, 2018. pp. 425–451. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119304418.ch14
E. Teymouri, S.F. Mousavi, H. Karami, S. Farzin and M.H. Kheirabad, “Municipal Wastewater pretreatment using porous concrete containing fine-grained mineral adsorbents”, Journal of Water Process Engineering, Vol. 36, p.101346, 2020.
X. Chen, Z. Niu, H. Zhang, Y. Guo, M. Liu and M. Zhou, “Study on the metakaolin-based geopolymer pervious concrete (MKGPC) and its removal capability of heavy metal ions”, International Journal of Pavement Engineering, pp.1-12, 2019.
AASHTO, “AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures”, In AASHTO, 1993.
R. Mahalingam and S. V. Mahalingam, “Analysis of pervious concrete properties”, Gradjevinar, Vol. 68, No. 6, pp. 493–501, 2016 https://doi.org/10.14256/JCE.1434.2015
T.D. Bhavana, S. Koushik, U. M. Kumar and R. Srinath, “Pervious concrete pavement”, In International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, Vol. 8, 2017. https://doi.org/10.3141/2113-02
S. J. Coupe, H. G. Smith, A. P. Newman and Puehmeier, T., “Biodegradation and microbial diversity within permeable pavements”, European Journal of Protistology, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1078/0932-4739-00027
K. Tota-maharaj, P. Grabowiecki and A. Babatunde, “The Performance and Effectiveness of Geotextiles Within Permeable Pavements for Treating Concentrated Stormwater”, Sixteenth International Water Technology Conference, IWTC 16 2012, Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 1–13, 2012.
M. Legret, V. Colandini and C. Le Marc, “Effects of a porous pavement with reservoir structure on the quality of runoff water and soil”, Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 189–190, pp. 335–340, 1996. https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(96)05228-X
N. Neithalath, J. Weiss and J. Olek, “Characterizing Enhanced Porosity Concrete using electrical impedance to predict acoustic and hydraulic performance”, Cement and Concrete Research, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2006.09.001
NRCA and National ready mixed concrete association (NRMCA), CIP 38 - Pervious Concrete. Concrete in Practice. What, Why and How? Vol. 3, 2004.
F. Montes and L. Haselbach, “Measuring hydraulic conductivity in pervious concrete”, Environmental Engineering Science, Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 960–969, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2006.23.960
A. Cheng, H. M. Hsu, S. J. Chao and K. L. Lin, “Experimental study on properties of pervious concrete made with recycled aggregate”, International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 104, 2011. https://doi.org/10.6135/ijprt.org.tw/2011.
B. Huang, L. N. Mohammad, A. Raghavendra and C. Abadie, “Fundamentals of permeability in asphalt mixtures”, Proceedings of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, 1999.
B. Huang, H. Wu, X. Shu and E. G. Burdette, “Laboratory evaluation of permeability and strength of polymer-modified pervious concrete”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 24, No. 5, pp. 818–823, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2009.10.025
W. Hogland and J. Niemczynowicz, “The unit superstructure - a new construction to prevent groundwater depletion”, Conjunctive Water Use. Proc. Budapest Symposium, (January 1986), pp. 513–522, 1986.
R.R. Holmes, M.L. Hart and J.T. Kevern, “Removal and breakthrough of lead, cadmium, and zinc in permeable reactive concrete”, Environmental Engineering Science, Vol. 35, No. 5, pp.408-419, 2018.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Kalimur Rahman, Saurav Barua, Md. Shibly Anwar, Md. Zakir Hasan, Saiful Islam (Author)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Click here for more information on Copyright policy
Click here for more information on Licensing policy