Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional Flexible Laryngoscopy Training Simulator


  • Amanda I. Gillespie Emory University School of Medicine
  • Sandeep Shelly Emory University School of Medicine
  • Sarah Jo Tucker Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University
  • Scott J. Hollister Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University
  • Andrew Tkaczuk Emory University School of Medicine
  • Adam Klein Emory University School of Medicine



The objective of this study was to validate the use of a 3-Dimensional Flexible Laryngoscopy Training Simulator. This is a simulation device development and validation study. Anonymized CT scan data from a head/neck CT of a patient with normal anatomy was imported and a head/neck digital model was created. A 3D simulation model was printed using a stiff (Stratasys Vero) and flexible (Stratasys Agilus) material combination with a ShoreA hardness value of 60. Novices and experts were instructed and provided 5 trials to pass the laryngoscope. The videos of the first and the last trial were recorded and evaluated by three different evaluators. Performances were measured by the amount of time spent and precision of the task. Repeated measures of ANOVA and generalized linear model with binomial proportion was used were utilized to analyze the data. The post training scores were statistically significantly higher than pre training scores (Mean: 15.57 vs. 13.01, p  <0.0001) controlling for trainee experience. The time taken to complete a successful pass post training was statistically significantly lesser than pre training (Mean: 62.55 secs vs. 36.36 secs, p-value = 0.0007) controlling for individual’s experience. The odds of becoming skilled at the task was 4 times higher post training in comparison to pre training, controlling for individual’s experience (OR: 4.05, p-value: 0.0026). The 3-Dimensional Flexible Laryngoscopy Training Simulator is a valid trainer for both novice and experienced individuals. The simulator can improve technical skill performance and is critical for medical training.


Simulator, Laryngoscopy, Vocal folds


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Research Article

How to Cite

A. I. Gillespie, S. Shelly, S. J. Tucker, S. J. Hollister, A. Tkaczuk, and A. Klein, “Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional Flexible Laryngoscopy Training Simulator”, J. Mod. Sim. Mater., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–6, Oct. 2022.