International Journal of Methodology <p><em><strong>International Journal of Methodology</strong></em> (IJM) is an international journal that focuses on discussing methodologies used for research in the academic or industrial disciplines. <em>Int. J. Methodol. </em>provides a platform for interdisciplinary exchange of methodological approaches in research to different fields including new methods and instructional papers that can be used by the research community. The focus of the International Journal of Methodology (<em>Int J Methodol.)</em> is to publish new methodological approaches as well as improvements to existing methodology including research designs, experimental techniques, research characterization, data measurements, data analysis approaches, educational methods, etc. </p> en-US International Journal of Methodology From Clinical Trial to Education: Methodologies, Assumptions, and Directions <p>In the field of education, emphasis on evidence-based practice, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), causal inference, and process evaluation can all find their roots back in clinical trials and medical research. This response paper surveys contemporary literature in psychometrics, process evaluation, and RCTs aiming to evaluate the feasibility and limitations of RCTs as a methodology in education and provide future directions. Based on the systematic literature review, the author argues: (1) A lack of significant positive treatment effect does not indicate that RCTs are not worth the investment. (2) A careful evaluation of the intervention itself, implementation process, and measurement instrument is recommended for RCTs. (3) There is the need to reframe some causal inference assumptions in an education setting. The paper also provides several examples of reframing assumptions and comments on the caveats. In conclusion, the author foresees a promising future for RCTs in education with the appropriate reframing of assumptions, process evaluation and replication, and recognition of the validity of parallel methodologies.</p> Ann Yinqi Zhang Copyright (c) 2022 Ann Yinqi Zhang 2022-03-08 2022-03-08 1 1 2 10 10.21467/ijm.1.1.4668 Rethinking Brain Death: A Physiological, Philosophical and Ethical Approach <p>The term ‘brain death’ is a rather untenable description to be defended ethically. This needs to be sorted out to ‘cortical brain death’, ‘whole brain death’ and WBD should include the brainstem. Organ transplants confound the difference between WBD and ‘biological death’, that is, the complete cessation of body function. It is clearly an ethical issue of taking a life, however, I argue for the greater good, IF it is clearly documented that irreversibility presents itself through multiple criteria (apnea, brainstem function, lack of long onset EEG, etc.). If meeting these criteria, we can have medical, physiological and moral standards and it is ethical to declare brain death, thus allowing organ transplants, and by definition, create biological death by doing so. This is a very consequentialist approach, but it does appease the dualistic ethics by separating the brain, or, more to the point, the concept of the ‘conscience’, and the possibility of defining ‘personhood’ or lack thereof. I believe the 1968 Harvard ‘declaration of death’ doesn’t fit the above criteria and the AMA declaration (formally adopted in 2003) states that: “a determination of death must be made in accordance with accepted medical standards”, however, those medical standards were not described. This paper addresses those standards.</p> Curt Anderson Copyright (c) 2022 Curt Anderson 2022-03-08 2022-03-08 1 1 11 17 10.21467/ijm.1.1.4546 Teaching a University Student with Learning Disabilities who Qualifies for Regular English as a Foreign Language Course Placement <p>This study investigated the effects of applying multiple intelligence theory in the tutelage of students with learning disabilities in the field of English as a foreign language (EFL). EFL teachers are urged to incorporate topics that would be of interest to students with learning disabilities, thus encouraging these students to think more deeply and participate more actively in their EFL learning. In this study, the instructor used drawing as a medium to teach English and achieved favorable outcomes. An interview revealed that the participant developed new EFL learning strategies, a stronger EFL learning motivation, improved English-language ability, and even planned to attend future EFL courses. Classroom observation indicated that the participant exhibited greater learning autonomy, enhanced English and drawing ability, decreased anxiety, and an improved student–teacher relationship. Despite its limitations, this study presented a new approach along with the results of that approach to help enhance the EFL learning outcomes of university students with learning disabilities. This novel approach is thus highly recommended for EFL educators of students with learning disabilities to incorporate into their teaching practices.</p> Wan-Jeng Chang Copyright (c) 2022 Wan-Jeng Chang 2022-03-08 2022-03-08 1 1 18 25 10.21467/ijm.1.1.4874