International Journal of Methodology 2023-03-14T13:54:48+00:00 Editorial Office Open Journal Systems <p><em><strong>International Journal of Methodology</strong></em> (IJM) is an international journal that focuses on discussing methodologies used for research in the academic or industrial disciplines. <em>Int. J. Methodol. </em>provides a platform for interdisciplinary exchange of methodological approaches in research to different fields including new methods and instructional papers that can be used by the research community. The focus of the International Journal of Methodology (<em>Int J Methodol.)</em> is to publish new methodological approaches as well as improvements to existing methodology including research designs, experimental techniques, research characterization, data measurements, data analysis approaches, educational methods, etc. </p> Variable Conceptualisation and Measurement in Environmental Research 2022-09-22T11:33:36+00:00 Beulah I Ofem Akaawase Alexander Mchi <p>This paper discusses the importance of variable conceptualisation and measurement in environmental research. The paper explains how wrong application of concepts can mislead the researcher when conducting research, and the resultant effects on each stage of the environmental research process. The paper is motivated by the problems behind many research students pursuing their masters or doctoral degree programmes face, especially with change in dissertations or theses titles and methods to match the contents of their reports. In this paper, the authors demystify the challenges encountered by unskilful researchers and students when trying to make their readers have a clear understanding of their research reports (dissertations or theses). Therefore, the paper may serve as a guide in planning and conducting environmental research by university degree students and early career researchers.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Beulah I Ofem, Akaawase Alexander Mchi A Path to Protein Quantitation: PBMCs to Western Blot 2023-01-24T17:52:39+00:00 Sufaya Jameel Parveen Jahan Subbiah Ramasamy <p>Proteins are biopolymers made up of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. These proteins mediate thousands of metabolic pathways that determine how an organism functions. When proteins are thoroughly investigated, they can provide information about health and disease. A variety of methods have been developed to quantify both complex protein mixtures for total protein content as well as a single type of protein. This manuscript covers the methodologies standardized in our lab based on previously published protocols, beginning with the isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human blood samples, cell viability testing, cell counting, total protein extraction methods, and protein quantification and estimation techniques, which enable a researcher to find the protocol from PBMCs to Western blot in a single manuscript.</p> 2023-04-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sufaya Jameel, Parveen Jahan, Subbiah Ramasamy The Value of Qualitative Methods in Cross Cultural Education 2022-10-28T02:09:43+00:00 H. Russell Searight <p>This paper presents a first-person account of using qualitative research methods to address medical residency education. The results of this project have been published. However, the study's process and its educational impact on the participants have not been well-described. The purpose of this article is to describe the background and conduct of the study itself. A family medicine residency program, the setting for this project, had recently begun accepting international medical graduates (IMGs) who had lived and received medical school education outside of the United States. The author, a faculty member in the residency and a clinical psychologist, and the physician faculty observed residents as they saw patients in the family medicine residency clinic. Concern was expressed about some of the IMG resident physicians’ knowledge base and their ability to develop rapport with patients. In providing instruction in behavioral science, the author and a psychologist colleague noted that some of the IMG residents were confused by aspects of U.S. family life and the educational system. The relationship with clinical instructors and expectations of faculty also differed from the pedagogical norms in U.S. medical education. As a result, a qualitative interview project was undertaken to understand better how these IMG residents were experiencing and interpreting faculty-learner and resident physician-patient interactions. The results were beneficial in multiple ways. First, recognizing that faculty members were interested in their experiences helped develop rapport and trust between the faculty and residents. Providing the project results to the residents helped open discussion about cultural differences in medical education and patient care. For educators who may have difficulty understanding the perspective that learners bring to their education, the process described could be of potential benefit.</p> 2023-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 H. Russell Searight Sterilize Methods Comparison for Soils 2022-11-23T14:42:07+00:00 Giselle A Querejeta <p>Soil sterilization is generally used to eliminate or reduce microbial activity in studies involving microbial inoculations, soil enzymes, among others. Achieving an adequate sterility condition is not straightforward due to the variety of resistance structures that are generated in soil microbial ecosystems and the reservoirs that can form between soil aggregates. This is why finding an effective method to achieve good sterilization is important in methodological terms, so the present work aims to compare the effectiveness of three widely used methodologies to sterilize soil and to evaluate their cost/benefit in terms of time and inputs invested. Four treatments were tested: gamma irradiation, sterilization cycles at different times: three cycles of 1 h each and four cycles of 15 min each, and chloroform vapors. The evaluation and comparison of all samples sterilized by the different methodologies were based on the total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial count. The results of this study suggest that it is more efficient to use autoclaving methods because the process is more accessible in terms of equipment and methodologies, and the final results are the same. In the case of this work, sterilization with chloroform vapors had to be rejected. While the use of gamma radiation may be more efficient in terms of time, it can be a costly and inaccessible service for some laboratories that do not have the equipment. Therefore, the most viable options in terms of time, cost, and benefit are those using autoclaves. Among these, shorter treatment times mean a reduction in the cost of using the equipment, so the option of 15-minute cycles is desirable.</p> 2023-04-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Giselle A Querejeta A Short Note on Scientific Research Methodologies 2023-03-14T13:54:48+00:00 Adam A Bahishti <p>Scientific research methodologies are critical to the advancement of scientific knowledge and the development of new theories and concepts. Researchers use a variety of methodologies to investigate phenomena, test hypotheses, and answer research questions. Understanding the different research methodologies available is essential for selecting the appropriate approach to address specific research questions. This article provides a comprehensive overview of scientific research methodologies, including experimental research, observational research, survey research, case study research, and correlational research.</p> 2023-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Adam A Bahishti