Extensive Reviews https://journals.aijr.org/index.php/exr <p>Extensive Reviews (<em>Extsv Rev</em>) is a peer-reviewed online journal that aims to <strong>publish review papers in all fields</strong> of academia. Generally, the review papers are a critical insight of scholarly literature that has already been published. The authors are expected to carefully identify and synthesize relevant literature to evaluate a specific research question, substantive domain, theoretical approach, or methodology and thereby provide readers with a state-of-the-art understanding of the research topic with future research direction.</p> en-US <div id="copyrightNotice"> <p>The author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to <em>Extensive Reviews</em> and its publisher <a title="AIJR Publisher homepage" href="https://aijr.org/about/about-aijr/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">AIJR</a> (India). Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print, and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media, or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.<br />Click <a title="Copyright Policy" href="https://aijr.org/about/policies/copyright/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a> for more information on Copyright policy<br />Click <a title="Licensing Policy" href="https://aijr.org/about/policies/licensing-policy/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a> for more information on Licensing policy</p> </div> exr@aijr.org (Editorial Office) exr@aijr.org (Mr. Amir) Sun, 12 Sep 2021 22:33:48 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.8 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Utilisation of Skilled Delivery in Ghana https://journals.aijr.org/index.php/exr/article/view/4426 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Access to a doctor, nurse, or a midwife during childbirth is key to the global effort to reduce maternal mortality ratios. Ghana has recorded significant improvements in maternal care over the past three decades. However, despite many policies aimed at improving health care for pregnant women such as the free maternal care policy, many Ghanaian women still deliver without a skilled birth attendant present. This systematic review, therefore, sought to identify the various factors affecting utilisation of skilled birth attendance in Ghana.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>PubMed Central, African Journals Online (AJOL), CINAHL Plus with Full Text (EBSCO), and Science Direct were searched for studies from January 2010 to December 2020. Broad range of search terms was used. Studies included had diverse designs, were conducted among Ghanaian pregnant women, and had skilled delivery as an outcome of interest. The quality of studies was assessed. Due to the diversity of types of studies included in this systematic review (including qualitative, descriptive, and evaluative studies that ranged from simple bivariate analyses to complex multivariate modelling), a meta-analysis was neither possible nor appropriate. We, therefore, conducted a narrative synthesis of the search findings.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Twenty-four (24) studies met our inclusion criteria for this review. Included studies comprised sixteen (16) cross-sectional studies and eight (8) qualitative studies. The sample size of the included studies cumulatively was 86,998 participants. The emerging themes were: health system factors (10); maternal and family factors (5); and sociodemographic factors (9).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In general, health system factors; maternal and family factors; and sociodemographic factors were found to influence skilled delivery services in Ghana. Therefore, in order to ensure that there is a skilled birth attendant present at every birth, efforts should aim at addressing social and cultural factors which have been identified as key determinants to utilisation of skilled delivery in Ghana.</p> Alex Afrifa, James Kojo Prah, Kwasi Sobre Nkrumah Copyright (c) 2021 Alex Afrifa, James Kojo Prah, Kwasi Sobre Nkrumah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aijr.org/index.php/exr/article/view/4426 Tue, 07 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An Examination of Research Agency and its Practical Applications https://journals.aijr.org/index.php/exr/article/view/4263 <p>The goal of this evaluation is to offer instructive practice on how to improve researcher agency. Indicated are how the literature review is an investigative process providing context to research studies and overall scholarship. Further, practical connection exhibits how exceptional research skills improve the body of information, structure, and quality needed to investigate global issues. Researchers provide a comprehensive analysis of phenomena to convey conceptual, theoretical, and empirical analysis of studies. Further, substantive feedback from collaborative research teams allows for corroboration and a refined final product. Likewise, the content of a research study must align to reflect objectivity and continuity. Conclusively, researchers must employ a regimented and ethical process to refine conceptual, theoretical, empirical, or grey literature studies to provide focus, clarity, and organization.</p> Abeni El-Amin Copyright (c) 2021 Abeni El-Amin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aijr.org/index.php/exr/article/view/4263 Sun, 05 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Principle of Most Favoured Nation https://journals.aijr.org/index.php/exr/article/view/4296 <p>The <em>"most favoured nation" principle</em> is the cornerstone of the modern international trading system. Each state is obliged to reflect the benefits it offers a nation over other WTO adherents as well. This system, however, although it proved effective until the last century for the creation of an international free trade system, today has lost its capabilities, mainly degraded by “private” international agreements between nations, such as RTA, FTA, PTA, and REIO, who have torn apart the principle and created groups of nations, each with their own personal advantages which are bestowed only on the nations adhering to the agreement. The following sections aim to give a description of this phenomenon and its evolutions up to modern times, through an analysis of the various exceptionality of the "most favored nation" principle, of the situation of modern free trade agreements, and of the effects both for national legislations and markets, in order to be able to understand what are the conditions facing the global market today and, above all, if the principle of <em>"non-discrimination"</em> is still a cornerstone in the trade relations in the MFN.</p> Frans Lavdari Copyright (c) 2021 Frans Lavdari https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aijr.org/index.php/exr/article/view/4296 Sun, 05 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Importance of Review Articles & its Prospects in Scholarly Literature https://journals.aijr.org/index.php/exr/article/view/4293 <p>With the growing number of scholarly publications around the world, it is becoming more and more difficult to keep up to date with all of it. To address this issue, authors often write an insightful review article on the recent developments within their research field based on the critical review of already published original research articles. Review articles are papers that compile, summarize, critique, and synthesize the available research information on a topic. Reviews can serve as a basis for knowledge development, create guidelines for policy and practice, provide evidence of an application, highlight research gap, and if well conducted, have the capacity to engender new ideas and serve as the grounds for future research directions. To be concise, extensive review articles play an important role as a foundation for all types of research &amp; its application. In this editorial, I will highlight the importance of review articles along with expectations from the author who intends to submit their insightful reviews to this journal <em>“Extensive Reviews”.</em> I encourage research scholars to write insightful and extensive review articles as a service to the scientific community and to enhance their own knowledge.</p> Adam A Bahishti Copyright (c) 2021 Adam A Bahishti https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aijr.org/index.php/exr/article/view/4293 Sun, 12 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000