Extensive Reviews 2023-10-14T11:36:19+00:00 Dr. Adam A Bahishti Open Journal Systems <p>Extensive Reviews (<em>Extsv Rev</em>) is a peer-reviewed online journal that aims to <strong>publish review papers in all fields</strong> of academia. Generally, the review papers are a critical insight of scholarly literature that has already been published. The authors are expected to carefully identify and synthesize relevant literature to evaluate a specific research question, substantive domain, theoretical approach, or methodology and thereby provide readers with a state-of-the-art understanding of the research topic with future research direction.</p> Differential Perspectives Between miRNA and lncRNA in Light of Biogenesis and Functions: A Review 2022-04-07T04:52:16+00:00 Shilpa Tewari Bhawanpreet Kaur Kanwaljit Rana Chandra Sekhar Mukhopadhyay <p>The central dogma is suggested that deoxyribonucleic acid is translated into ribonucleic acid (RNA) and then into protein. It is considered that 2–3% of the genomic DNA in a functionally active cell, is transcribed to protein-coding RNA. The presence of noncoding transcripts has been neglected many a time as cellular DNA and transcript noises, however, increasing proof proposes that a very important part of these non-coding transcripts is functionally effective as RNA molecules. The non-coding transcripts of up to 100 bases are known as small non-coding RNA that comprises tRNA, miRNA, snoRNA, piwi-interacting RNA (pi-RNA), etc. Interestingly, rRNA features about 6.9 kb, though these are not considered long-non-coding RNAs. However, RNA molecules that are over 200 bases long (ranging between 0.8 to 10 kb) are known as long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). It does not have open reading frames (with some exceptions), 3`- untranslated regions (3’-UTRs), and these RNAs are devoid of any translation-termination regions. However, these may be capped, spliced, and polyadenylated as RNA molecules and play a major role in factor regulation, neoplastic cell invasion, chromatin granule transforming, and cell differentiation. Downregulation of lncRNA is responsible for numerous diseases in mammals. miRNAs are mature transcripts of 22 nt in length and function as antisense regulators of other RNAs. They play role in post-transcriptional factors and are involved in differentiation, proliferation, immune response, cell growth, and caspase-mediated cell death. Downregulation in miRNA expression has a necessary role in many diseases, together with cancers.</p> 2023-10-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Shilpa Tewari, Bhawanpreet Kaur, Kanwaljit Rana, Chandra Sekhar Mukhopadhyay Nigeria’s Foreign Policy and Insecurity: Addressing the Missing Links and Reoccurring Issues 2022-04-12T03:25:50+00:00 Stephen Chinedu Chioke Chibuike Chris Umeokafor <p>Insecurity is the biggest problem in Africa and nothing meaningful has been done by several sovereign states in Sub-Saharan Africa to stem the tide and its effects on nations all over the region. To this end, security has risen to be the dire need to be considered through the lens of foreign policy as an integral part of public administration and governance in Nigeria. Therefore, this paper specifically explored the missing links that gave rise to the problem of insecurity from foreign policy perspective; and the reoccurring issues that the ebb and flow of her foreign policy posed to Nigerian public space with major focus on Buhari’s Administration. Secondary data was employed to analyse the broad and specific objectives of this paper through a descriptive and explanatory method. The missing link in Nigeria’s foreign policy and security challenges spotted in the analysis are political ideology, globalization, poorly unchecked borderlands, and high rate of migration of criminal elements. The paper discovered some reoccurring issues in Nigeria’s foreign policy and security challenges. The paper concluded that all is not well with the country, because while the protectionist policy under President Buhari to a great extent blocked foreign trade, it left security of borderlands at the mercy of corrupt security personnel. Based on this, all hands must be on deck to exterminate the current tide in the wave of insecurity ravaging the country at all costs.</p> 2023-10-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Stephen Chinedu Chioke, Chibuike Chris Umeokafor